Hatchery Set-up and Hatching Management

Hatchery Set-up and Hatching Management
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Hatchery Set-up and Hatching Management

Hatchery Set-up and Hatching Management is a free technique to help you make million in catfish production. Peruse through to gain some free Knowledge.  Furthermore, Get a Complete e book on how to own, manage and make millions from Catfish Production. In like manner, Contact Us for a Good Business Plan and Feasibility Report on any Agribusiness Startup. Peruse through our Table of content below to see what we offer.

Hatchery Set-up and Hatching Management


UNDERSTANDING THE BASICS FOR A SUCCESSFUL FISH BREEDING

  • Key components needed are
  • Water
  • Land
  • Power
  • Feed
  • Personnel
  • Water Discharge point
  • Market

CRITERIA TO CONSIDER IN SELECTING A SITE FOR FISH FARMING

  • A flat Land
  • Site Devoid of Rocks and Trees
  • Site Close to A Fresh water Source, e.g River, Stream
  • Furthermore, Site Close to ‘PHCN’ Power Lines
  • Presence of Good, Abundant Underground water

STARTING SMALL, GETTING BIG ADOPTING A MODULAR DESIGN

  • A Modular Design Consists of Sections
  • That can be rearranged,
  • Replaced, combined, or interchanged easily.
  • Even if the funds are readily available, it is always
  • Wise to start small.
  • During the times of small,
  • One will understand how best to grow big

Introduction to African Catfish hatchery set up and management African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

In Europe, Clarias gariepinus was first introduced in the Netherlands in 1976.

The first brood stock originated from the wild from the Central African Republic.

Commercial farming of this species started in 1985 in recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). Much later catfish strains from Israel and the Republic of South Africa were introduced. These strains were crossed for the production of fingerlings and resulted in the currently cultured “Dutch strain” African catfish. On farmers level, brood stock selection is mostly done in a very uninformed way.

Another problem for the farmer producing African catfish fingerlings is to show his customer the benefit of an improved strain. Improvements in growth and feed conversion ratio of for example 5% are great achievements in the mind of a researcher, but for a farmer small differences are most probable not spotted without serious farm record-keeping. Practically, the market for African catfish fingerlings is first of all price driven. Next to this, hatcheries should focus on availability, size, uniformity and health status of the African catfish.

Selection of African catfish broodstock

The first broodstock came from the wild. In the Netherlands for example, wild African catfish was imported from Central Africa and the first generations the selection was based on growth. My personal opinion is that we were just performing selection of fish which were able to adapt to the intensive way of farming in warm water recirculation systems. In the Netherlands the strains were not kept separate and as a result the “Dutch African catfish” is a result of 3 strains.

Meat quality and dress out percentage are very important parameters for the processing industry. Variation is noticed between the strains from different locations in Africa.

In the tropics the aspect of meat quality and dressing percentage are of less importance because the fish is consumed as a whole; no filets are taken from the fish and heads and intestines are not wasted.

Hatchery Set-up and Hatching Management




Hatchery Set-up and Hatching Management



Hatchery Set-up and Hatching Management

Hybridization of African catfish

Within the family of Clariidae (Siluriformes) intergeneric hybrids were produced through interbreeding between species from the genera Heterobranchus and Clarias. A well-known intergeneric hybrid is a crossbred between the Heterobranchus longifillis female and Clarias gariepinus male, the so called “Hetero-clarias”. Due to rearranging of genetic material from both species in the offspring, the intergeneric hybrids show characteristics of both parental species.

The filet of Heteroclarias is white in comparison with the pink/reddish colour of Clarias gariepinus filets and contains 30% more fat than Clarias gariepinus filets, which improves the taste. The gonads of hybrids are almost absent and not active. For this reason the dressing percentage is relatively high compared to Clarias gariepinus. The Heteroclarias fish filet can be used as an alternative for white filets from marine fish species.


Hatchery Set-up and Hatching Management


Fingerling production of Heteroclarias shows big differences in behaviour with the common African catfish. The Heteroclarias fingerlings show a wide variation in growth and severe cannibalism is noticed, especially when frequent grading is neglected. Next to this the Heteroclarias is easily stressed. After an age of 12 weeks, well graded fish show very equal growth and low mortality to the moment of harvesting at 1.4 kg.

In the tropics the Heteroclarias is considered superior over the Clarias gariepinus in growth in pond culture and is considered as better growing fish.


Hatchery Set-up and Hatching Management


For a fingerling producer hybridisation has a major benefit. The hybrids are infertile and it is not possible for customers to continue breeding with those fish. The pure parent stock is kept on farm and is never shared with other farmers. The pure Heterobranchus longifillis strain matures at a age of 2 years, which is very late compared to Clarias gariepinus (1 year).

African catfish broodstock section

System:
Preference is givem to a recirculation system connected to a water purification unit. The tanks, both fish tanks and tanks of the water purification unit, can be built of materials like glass fibre, polyethylene or concrete. The water purification unit consists of a sedimentation tank, a pump tank, a bio tower and a UV-system. The system should be placed in a confined area were the temperature can be controlled. The tanks should be equipped with good drains for easy and quick selection of the broodstock before reproduction. Next to this system a number of preparation-recovery tanks should be placed (around 300 liters).

Stocking: The number of brood stock needed depends on the success rate of the spawning. For example one female can be used for eight spawnings per year (in theory) providing 3.2 kg of eggs. This equals around 1.6 million eggs and with a minimal 10% survival till juvenile stage this results in a yearly production 160.000 African catfish juveniles.

Feed: African catfish broodstock should be fed with good quality feeds. Special feed should normally be used for broodstock, which has higher concentrations of proteins, fats, vitamins and certain aminoacids than normal grower feeds. The difference between broodstock feed and normal growout feed is the ingredients used in the diet. For African catfish broodstock feed the best quality fish meal is used, fat is provided only by fishoil (no vegetable oils are used) and micro nutrients are added. The feed has been tested mainly in salmonids and in these fishes it improves the fecundity in both sexes, the hatching rate and decreases the occurance of deformities in the fry (the addition of astaxanthine and Vitamine E to the feed prevents oxidative damage of young tissues by free radicals). The immune system of the broodstock is boosted by the addition of beta glucans (immunostimulants) in the feed. Researchers suspect that this also will be transmitted to the eggs. The broodstock could be fed about 4 times a day by hand.Even in the tropics I prefer to import expensive compound feed from a reliable factory in Europe instead of using locally produced and often unreliable feeds. I believe a good starting point is essential for a successful development of the offspring.

Life span of broodstock: In our hatchery we try to maximise the life span of the broodstock, since replacements are costly. Males can be used 1 (if the male is killed) to 4 times (if the operation procedure is used), before it is being replaced by new, younger males. Old males (above 4 years) tend to develop testis with sponge like tissue and it is containing watery sperm with a low concentration of sperm cells. Females can be used for a long period and stay in a better condition for a longer time, especially when the females are used maximum twice per year. Females reach a higher weight and size than males (max. 15 kg and 1.30 meters). Growing the next generation of broodstock should be done in a separate system.

Sperm Harvesting

Male Clarias gariepinus do not release sperm after treatment with hormones like many other fish species. The males have ripe sperm all year round. The fish should be at least 1 year old to have ripe gonads. A lot of variation can be seen between males of the same age in ripeness and size of testis. In practice farmers sacrifice males in order to dissect the testis out of the abdomen. By making incisions in the testis tissue the sperm can be collected. As a consequence new male broodstock needs to be added to the broodstock population sacrificing the males is a big constraint on genetic programmes.

Some farmers are using operation on the males. After tranquilizing the fish, a small incision is made in the belly of the fish and with a syringe with needle some sperm is taken out of the testis. Finally the incision in the belly is stitched using veterinary stitching material and the male is able to recover in 1 to 2 weeks. During this time the wound closes completely.

Unlike the sperm of mammals sperm of fish is not active, but will become active as soon as it is in the water. The sperm is active for less than a minute, so it has to find an egg quickly before all the energy has gone. This is the reason that during the process of sperm collection all materials, hands and the fish should be dry. Although these precautions are taken, the sperm can be activated accidentally. The sperm concentration of good males is more than a million per ml!

Cryo conservation of sperm has been done on an experimental scale and the method is quite successful. The problem of this method for farmers is that they have to be equipped with a laboratory and should have permanent availability of liquid nitrogen to keep the sperm preserved.

Fertilization of African catfish

The eggs and sperm are collected in a dry glass or porcelain bowl and a dry small glass or porcelain cup respectively. A simple but effective way of fertilization is to bring the eggs and sperm together in the egg collection bowl, mix it gently before adding water.

Adding certain fertilizing solutions during fertilization is reported as being very beneficial, because they are thought to extend the life of the sperm in order to improve the fertilization rate.

Artificial propagation of African catfish is a relatively simple procedure and many farmers are very skillful in doing it. Millions of larvae are hatched weekly in our country, Nigeria. However there still is a shortage of good quality fingerlings and juveniles. Reproduction of African catfish is following a certain procedure, but farming the larvae for 1 or 2 months to juvenile stage comes down to the capabilities of the individual farmer.

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For your Agribusiness, either production, processing, marketing of any Agro-industry, our feasibility studies or business plan are explicit. 


Generally, our feasibility study and business plans are developed so well that it becomes irresistible when you show them to your investors or sponsors. It gives you a clear picture of what you are expected to see when you put the feasibility study or business plans into use. It also shows how much it will cost you to own your desired business, what your money can afford. The kinds of product you will need to minimize input in other to maximize output, and how much returns you will get at the end of each accounting year until your business break-even on its initial investment capital. This will give the intending business person or investor or farmer, a vivid idea on the possible benefit he or she stands to gain, when he or she starts doing the business. With that, the intending business person or investor or farmer will not need a soothsayer to make decision for him or her.


You can use this format in developing your own business Plans and feasibility Study

OUR TABLE OF CONTENT INCLUDE;

  • SECTION I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
  • OFFICE & SITE LOCATION
  • MOTIVATION
  • MISSION STATEMENT
  • SOCIAL/ECONOMIC VALUE
  • PROJECT STATUS & START UP
  • WHY PREPARE THIS BUSINESS PLAN?
  • SECURITIES FOR THE PROPOSED LOAN
  • REPAYMENT
  • SECTION II – STUDY AREA
  • STUDY AREA
  • COMPANY OVERVIEW
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM
  • DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY
  • EXPERIENCE
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM GAPS
  • SECTION III – INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
  • DEFINING YOUR INDUSTRY
  • YOUR INDUSTRY SIZE GROWTH RATE AND SALES PROJECTIONS
  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
  • MARKET OVERVIEW
  • MARKET SEGMENTATION
  • RELEVANT MARKET SIZE
  • KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
  • LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE
  • MARKET CHARACTERISTICS
  • SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
  • SECTION IV – CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
  • TARGET CUSTOMERS
  • CUSTOMER NEEDS
  • MARKET NEEDS / SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
  • BUYERS BEHAVIOUR
  • MARKET SHARE
  • SALES FORECASTING
  • SECTION V – COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
  • DIRECT COMPETITORS
  • COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
  • SECTION VI – MARKETING PLAN
  • PRODUCTS & SERVICES
  • FINISHED PRODUCTS
  • PRODUCT QUALITY AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY
  • PRODUCTION CAPACITY
  • PRICING
  • PROMOTIONS PLAN
  • DISTRIBUTION PLAN
  • SECTION VII – OPERATIONS PLAN
  • GENERAL APPROACH TO PRODUCTION
  • TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
  • EQUIPMENT
  • PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
  • SECTION VIII – FINANCIAL PLAN
  • REVENUE MODEL
  • FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
  • FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS
  • FINANCE CHARGES
  • FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
  • FUNDING REQUIREMENTS/USE OF FUNDS
  • CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS



  • FINANCIAL MODELS
  • SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
  • BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
  • DEPRECIATION
  • UTILITIES
  • OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
  • TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
  • FINANCING PLAN
  • INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
  • BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
  • LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
  • FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
  • CASH FLOW
  • BALANCE SHEET
  • GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
  • BUSINESS RATIOS - PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
  • CONCLUSION
  • SECTION 3 – APPENDIX

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·         NOTE; According to our policy, we are not “allowed / permitted” to disclose peoples business or written feasibility study, “to anyone”, irrespective of their personality.

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·         This is just a sample of our executive summary on poultry feasibility study and business plan, carried out in Rivers State. 

·         1st sample;



These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study. 



Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi. 



Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration. 



After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.

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