CATFISH AND CATFISH FARMING

CATFISH AND CATFISH FARMING
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CATFISH AND CATFISH FARMING

Clarias gariepinus or African sharptooth catfish is a species of catfish of the family Clariidae, the airbreathing catfishes.

The African catfish was introduced all over the world in the early 1980s for aquaculture purposes, so is found in countries far outside its natural habitat, such as Brazil, Vietnam, Indonesia, and India.
CATFISH AND CATFISH FARMING


Although more than 100 different species of the Genus Clarias have been described in Africa, a recent systematic revision based on morphological, anatomical and biographical studies has been carried out by Teugels (1982a, 1982b, 1984), who recognized 32 valid species. The large African species which are of interest for aquaculture belong to the subgenus Clarias. In earlier systematic studies on the large African catfish species Boulenger (1911) as well as David (1935) recognized five species within this subgenus. Both authors used morphological criteria such as form of vomerine teeth, ratio of vomerine to premaxillary teeth band and the number of gill rakers. The five species were:

  • Clarias anguillarus 
  • Clarias senegalensis 
  • Clarias lazera 
  • Clarias mossambicus 
  • Clarias gariepinus 

In 1982 Teugels revised the subgenus Clarias and found only two species (C. gariepinus and C. anguillaris) if the number of gill rakers on the first branchial arch was considered; for C. anguillaris the number of gill rakers was rather low (14 to 40) while for C. gariepinus relatively high (20 to 100, Figure 1)


Natural geographical distribution - Clarias gariepinus, which is generally considered to be one of the most important tropical catfish species for aquaculture, has an almost Pan-African distribution, ranging from the Nile to West Africa and from Algeria to Southern. By contrast, Clarias anguillaris has a more restricted distribution and is found in Mauritania, in most West African basins and in the Nile (Figure 2). In general C. gariepinus lives in most river basins sympatrically with C. anguillaris. - C. gariepinus has an average adult length of 1–1.5 m (3 feet 3 inches–4 feet 11 inches). It reaches a maximum length of 1.7 m (5 feet 7 inches) Total Lenght and can weigh up to 60 kg (130 lb). These fish have slender bodies, flat bony heads, notably flatter than in the genus Silurus, and broad, terminal mouths with four pairs of barbels. They also have large accessory breathing organs composed of modified gillarches. Also, only the pectoral fins have spines.


Nigeria fishery statistics - 2016 Summary report - The total fish demand for Nigeria based on the 2014 population estimate of 180m was 3.32m Mt. The domestic fish production from Aquaculture, Artisanal and Industrial fisheries for 2014 was 1.123m Mt. Also in 2014, fisheries contributed 0.48% to the Agriculture GDP and contribution of Agriculture to GDP (2014) was 20.24%. - In 2012, the total Fish production via Aquaculture was estimated at 254,000 metric tons at a total worth of N22 Billion - Common cultured fish species are majorly Catfish and Tilapia - Some of the potential Investments opportunities in the Aquaculture industry varies from Hatchery Production, Brood Stock Production, Ornamental Fish Production, Shrimps Production, Tilapia Fish Production, Movable Cages Production, Processing Plants, Fishmeal, e.t.c.


Earthen Pond Designs and Layouts

Essential Factors to be considered when siting an Earthen Pond Farm are;

1.Soil Profile

2.Soil water table Profile and water retention ability

3.Topography

4.Accessible to adjourning road networks

5.Presence of natural source of water such as Lake, Stream, River, Dam, Swamps


It is of importance that an earthen pond should be well mobilized to withstand flash floods and over-flows

Essential Management Practice

Lime Ponds to neutralize the pH of the soil as well as destroy to unwanted organism
Fertilize Ponds using organic or inorganic fertilizers. This is to stimulate the growth of algae as well as precondition the Ponds to receive living organism (Fingerlings)

Use of Harpers for the first 4 weeks of stocking
  1. Grading or sorting of fish into uniform grades/sizes at least 2 times before they reach 2 months 
  2. Replenishing or complete change of ponds water twice or at least once in a month 
  3. It is of advantage to use oxygen bubbles, aerator or improvised with flow-thru system so as to improve the re-oxygenation of the Pond water 
  4. Cover sides and top of each pond to protect against predator birds and reptiles 
  5. Discourage feeding late into the night. This often predisposed fish to stress arising from competition for available oxygen at night (Anaerobic respiration by Algae in the pond water)

  • FIXED ASSETS

-Cost of Digging Ponds (15mx10mx1m)at =N=100,000 per Pond by 5 units 2,000 Tons capacity: =N=500,000
-Farm accessories and Equipment (Water Pumps, Drag Nets, Sorting Bowl, weighing scale etc) .................. =N= 120,000
-Lease deductible on land (@ 1,2000,000/40 Years) …………………………………………………………………………. =N= 30,000
-Pond mobilization and Pipe works ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. =N= 100,000
-Total Fixed Cost ……………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………….. =N= 750,000
-Depreciation on Fixed cost (less lease on land) over 6 Years …………………………………………………………. =N=120,000


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Engage CHRIS FARM NIGERIA to give you a professional business plans and a feasibility that will suit your demand today.


Chris Farm Nigeria develops well self-explanatory, irresistible feasibility studies or business plan for your Business start ups, Business Growth or Expansions through either personal funds, Grants, or loans, which could be new or existing ones. We delight in writing for people under Academic sectors, production sectors, manufacturing sectors, processing or packing sectors, advertising sectors, marketing sectors and other related sectors on mini, middle and large scale businesses.
For your Agribusiness, either production, processing, marketing of any Agro-industry, our feasibility studies or business plan are explicit. 


Generally, our feasibility study and business plans are developed so well that it becomes irresistible when you show them to your investors or sponsors. It gives you a clear picture of what you are expected to see when you put the feasibility study or business plans into use. It also shows how much it will cost you to own your desired business, what your money can afford. The kinds of product you will need to minimize input in other to maximize output, and how much returns you will get at the end of each accounting year until your business break-even on its initial investment capital. This will give the intending business person or investor or farmer, a vivid idea on the possible benefit he or she stands to gain, when he or she starts doing the business. With that, the intending business person or investor or farmer will not need a soothsayer to make decision for him or her.


You can use this format in developing your own business Plans and feasibility Study

OUR TABLE OF CONTENT INCLUDE;

  • SECTION I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
  • OFFICE & SITE LOCATION
  • MOTIVATION
  • MISSION STATEMENT
  • SOCIAL/ECONOMIC VALUE
  • PROJECT STATUS & START UP
  • WHY PREPARE THIS BUSINESS PLAN?
  • SECURITIES FOR THE PROPOSED LOAN
  • REPAYMENT
  • SECTION II – STUDY AREA
  • STUDY AREA
  • COMPANY OVERVIEW
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM
  • DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY
  • EXPERIENCE
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM GAPS
  • SECTION III – INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
  • DEFINING YOUR INDUSTRY
  • YOUR INDUSTRY SIZE GROWTH RATE AND SALES PROJECTIONS
  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
  • MARKET OVERVIEW
  • MARKET SEGMENTATION
  • RELEVANT MARKET SIZE
  • KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
  • LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE
  • MARKET CHARACTERISTICS
  • SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
  • SECTION IV – CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
  • TARGET CUSTOMERS
  • CUSTOMER NEEDS
  • MARKET NEEDS / SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
  • BUYERS BEHAVIOUR
  • MARKET SHARE
  • SALES FORECASTING
  • SECTION V – COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
  • DIRECT COMPETITORS
  • COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
  • SECTION VI – MARKETING PLAN
  • PRODUCTS & SERVICES
  • FINISHED PRODUCTS
  • PRODUCT QUALITY AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY
  • PRODUCTION CAPACITY
  • PRICING
  • PROMOTIONS PLAN
  • DISTRIBUTION PLAN
  • SECTION VII – OPERATIONS PLAN
  • GENERAL APPROACH TO PRODUCTION
  • TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
  • EQUIPMENT
  • PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
  • SECTION VIII – FINANCIAL PLAN
  • REVENUE MODEL
  • FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
  • FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS
  • FINANCE CHARGES
  • FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
  • FUNDING REQUIREMENTS/USE OF FUNDS
  • CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS



  • FINANCIAL MODELS
  • SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
  • BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
  • DEPRECIATION
  • UTILITIES
  • OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
  • TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
  • FINANCING PLAN
  • INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
  • BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
  • LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
  • FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
  • CASH FLOW
  • BALANCE SHEET
  • GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
  • BUSINESS RATIOS - PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
  • CONCLUSION
  • SECTION 3 – APPENDIX

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·         NOTE; According to our policy, we are not “allowed / permitted” to disclose peoples business or written feasibility study, “to anyone”, irrespective of their personality.

·        BUT, WE are permitted to display only executive summary.
·         This is just a sample of our executive summary on poultry feasibility study and business plan, carried out in Rivers State. 

·         1st sample;



These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study. 



Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi. 



Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration. 



After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.

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