A to Z on Fish Farming IT

A to Z on Fish Farming IT
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CHAPTER ONE
1.0  INTRODUCTION

Six months industrial training was undertaken at Teemartins aquaculture value chain entrepreneurship, which is located at Adazi-nnukwu, Anaocha L.G.A Anambra state. From 29th April, 2013 to 29th October, 2013. This training helped me in gaining practical knowledge in different areas of catfish farming which include hatchery, fingerlings production, table fish production, post-harvest processing and packaging.
This industrial report highlight on the experiences gained in the following areas; hatchery, fish spawning, artificial fertilization, different stages of catfish production, post harvest processing and packaging.
With all these knowledge acquired so far, I can give my own quota in catfish farming practices.


1.1 OBJECTIVES OF STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME.
1.     It provides an avenue for students in institution of higher learning to acquire industrial skills and experience in their approved course of study.
2.     It enlightens and strengthens employers involvement in educational process and to prepare students for future employment.
3.     It provides students the opportunity to apply their knowledge in real work situation, thereby bridging the gap between theories and practicals.
4.     It prepares student for industrial work which they are likely to meet after graduation.
5.     It makes one to get to know employers and make a solid network.
  
1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF TEEMARTINS AQUACULTURE
Teemartins aquaculture came into existence on 1st February, 2005 in the first place as a private and personal project of Mr and Mrs Emeka Martins Iloghalu who was a senior Geoscientist with Schlumberger(the multi-national and foremost oil and gas services company with head quarters in New York, USA). In form of a hubby and an experiment.
The company is engaged in the business of producing catfish fingerlings and table fish. This company is also into processing, smoke-drying, packaging and distribution of different kinds of fishes starting with the catfish species. In doing this, several processing, smoking-drying and packaging technologies have been acquired, harnessed and integrated.

1.3 BUSINESS OPERATING ENVIRONMENT/OVERVIEW
The company is utilizing an existing privately own fish farm, research and development center owned by the present directors, Mr Emeka Martins Iloghalu and Barr. (Mrs) Justina C. Iloghalu, located at Adazi nnukwu town in Anaocha L.G.A.
This farm presently has the following facilityies;
1.     Processing bay, smoke-drying plant (150kg/batch/day) and packaging 1,500kg /day.
2.     20mx5mx1.5m ponds capacity for 25,000 table size fishes.
3.     Hatchery (producing 10,000fingerlings per production twice/month).
4.     Factory / farm house / staff quarters / meeting room.
5.     420ft deep water borehole with 3hp pump.
6.     2 generating sets (10kva petrol and 10kva diesel).


1.4 FIGURE 1
TEEMARTINS PRODUCTION OPERATIONS ORGANOGRAM

    
                              MANAGING DIRECTOR/CEO
|
                           ACCOUNTANT/ADMIN OFFICER
|
______________________________________________
|                                                      |
OPERATIONS SUPERVISOR        REP/EXECUTIVE MARKETING OFFICER
                        |
 _____________________________
     |                        |                             |
OPERATOR  OPERATOR  OPERATOR
  

FISH FARMING
Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture. It involves raising fishies.

CATFISH FARMING.
There are two important types of catfish farming, they are;
-         Nursery fish farming
-         Grow out fish farming

THE NURSERY FISH FARMING
This involves the inducement of the female fish to lay eggs which are then fertilized artificially by the male sperm, incubated and hatched. Those little fishes between a day and two weeks old are known as “fries”. These fries are then nurtured from between three and four weeks into ‘fingerlings’ which is the size suitable for use in the “grow out farming”.

THE GROW OUT FISH FARMING
This is dependent on the nursery fish farming without the nursery stage. But they can be operated separately by two different farmers or the same farmer can operate both.

STAGES IN CATFISH FARMING
There are two stages in catfish farming and they include;
1.   
  PRIMARY STAGE ( nursery fish farming stage) :=this is between the nursery and the grow out operation, it involves the nurturing of fries three or four weeks to grow into post fingerlings, mini juvenile and juvenile respectively.
2.     
SECONDARY STAGE (grow out fish farming stage) := this is the period you nurtured the fingerlings for four to five months into grow out size/ table size fish suitable for consumption.

AFRICAN CATFISH
Scientific name: Clarias gariepinus
Family: clarridae
Species: clarias gariepinus

2.1 AQUACULTURE VALUE CHAIN
This is the different stages of fish production in which they are being added value to before reaching or getting to the final consumer ready for consumption or from the point of production to the point of marketing or consumption. The different stages of aquaculture value chain includes; fish feed production, fingerlings production, table fish production, post harvest processing, transportation, marketing.

   FISH FEEDS
           |
FINGERLINGS          BROODSTOCKS      TABLE FISHES
|
PROCESSED
     SMOKE-DRIED FISH
                                                |
PACKAGED AND LABELLED FISHES
The fingerlings, table fishes and broodstocks utilize the feed for their growth, then they are being processed into smoke-dried fish then the smoke-dried fishes are packaged and labeled.

CHAPTER THREE        

3.0 PREPARATION OF POND
Pond is prepared depending on the intention of the farmer.

3.1 PREPARATION OF HATCHERY TANKS
As the name implies, hatchery tanks are tanks where fertilized eggs are spread uniformly over the net in homogenously single tanks.

STEPS IN PREPARING HATCHERY TANKS
Step 1: Add water in the tanks and spread salt in it.
Step 2: Leave for 30 minutes.
Step 3: Wash the hatchery tanks with hand brush both inlet and outlet and allow the dirty water to move out.
Step 4: Pour in a clean water to rinse the tanks.
Step 5: Remove the water after rinsing.
Step 6: After cleaning, add fresh water in the tanks in preparation of spawning.

FISH HATCHERY
A fish hatchery is a place for artificial breeding, hatching and rearing through the early life stages of animals, hatcheries produce fry and juvenile fish primarily to support the aquaculture industry where they are transferred to on-going system i.e fish farms to reach harvest size. Some species that are commonly raised in hatcheries includes; tilapia, salmon, catfish, etc. but in this report, catfish is our main focus.

3.2 BENEFITS/PURPOSE OF HATCHERY.
1. Out of season production:- consistent supply of fish from aquaculture facilities is an important market requirement. Broodstock conditioning can extend the natural spawning season and thus the supply of juveniles or frys to farms.
2. Genetic improvement:- genetic modification is conducted in some hatcheries to improve the quality and yield of farmed species. Artificial fertilization facilitates selective breeding programs which aim to improve production characteristics such as; growth rate, disease resistance, survival, colour, increased fecundity and /or lower age of maturity. Genetic improvement can be mediated by selective breeding via hybridization or other genetic manipulation techniques.
3. Reduce dependence on wild-caught juvenile:- although wild caught juveniles are still utilized in the industry, concerns over sustainability of extracting juvenile and the variable timing and magnitude of natural spawning events, make hatchery production an attractive alternative to support the growing demands of aquaculture.

3.3 SELECTION OF BROODSTOCKS.
1.     Broodstocks that will be used for breeding must be up to 1kg to 1.5kg for the female while the male should be from 1.5 to 2kg. Also be as from 1 year and above.
2.     Matured eggs showing clearly in the center of the nucleus and could be obtained by slight pressure on the abdomen.
3.     The broodstock eggs should be brown in colour but if it is brownish green, it is still alright but brown eggs are the best.


3.4 EQUIPMENT USED IN HATCHERY/HORMONAL INJECTION
* Baskets.
* Nets and sacks
* A weighing balance
*Sharp razor blade/knife
*A bowl
*Saline solution
*Broodstocks (either 1 male to 2 female or depending on the individual)
* Plastic spoon
* A syringe
* Tissue paper/hand towel
* Ovaprim (a synthesized hormone)

3.5 PROCEDURES FOR HATCHERY HORMONE INJECTION IN CATFISH.
1.     The broodstocks (females) were taken out from the broodstock pond into a bowl.
2.     An empty bowl was kept on top of the weighing balance and was zeroed.
3.     The broodstock were then placed inside the bowl that has been zeroed. This is done in order to measure the weight of the broodstocks to be used for spawning. The reason for weighing the broodstock is to know to the quantity of ovaprim that will be injected in them.                                            example; for 3.8kg of a female fish, 1.9ml of ovaprim will be injected. (i.e; 0.5x3.8)ml=1.9ml. For 1.8kg of fish, 0.9ml is injected. (i.e; 1.8x0.5)ml=0.9ml.
4.     Then inject the broodstocks with ovaprim hormone at 0.5ml/kg of their body weight or grinded pituitary glands of the mate and leave them for 8-10 hours, this will cause swelling of the abdomen.
5.     Wash the baskets and nets and sacks to be used with saline solution for them to be disinfected. Then place the nets and sacks lightly on each basket, and then place them on the already prepared hatchery tanks. NOTE: Make sure the PH of the water in the hatchery tanks has been tested before pouring the eggs in them. Suitable PH for hatchery is 6.8-9.0.
6.     Make a saline solution using 2litres of water and a leveled salt in a teaspoon.
7.     Then bring the male broodstock, cut or make an incision from the position of the papilla (penis), bring out the gonad (testes)(two in number). If the gonad is stained with blood, wash them in a saline solution, then make an incision to extract milt from the gonads to a clean bowl.
8.     Then bring the female broodstocks that was injected with ovaprim, remove the water from the bowl and carefully bring out the female without struggle. Dry them gently with hand towel. Hold one of the female broodstock tightly and place in a clean bowl. This is done by two people, a towel or tissue paper is used to cover the head/eyes by one person then the other person strips the female manually by pressing the abdomen with the thumb from the pectoral to genital papilla, this is done to extract the eggs from the female.
9.     Then mix the eggs from the female with the milt from the gonad of the male and add a little saline water to mix very well with spoon. Then take the mixture to the prepared hatchery tanks, take a little water from the tank and mix with the mixture this will make the temperature of the water to stabilize with the eggs).

Then pour the mixture in the baskets by spreading the eggs evenly in the baskets containing nets/sacks. Then leave to incubate after 48hours, the eggs are hatched.


3.6. MANAGEMENT OF HATCHERY
Make sure that there is constant flow of water in and out in the hatchery tanks, this helps reduce odour and death of the larval. Also make sure that there is air bubble in the tanks, this helps for their oxygenation. It must be constant.
As hatchery takes place, the net is turned upside down and removed immediately as soon as hatching occurs.
Teemartins aquaculture has overhead tanks which were constructed using PVC pipes in the farm. This is because incubation period depends mainly on water supply and air temperature. When the fish egg hatch, the healthy larval swims to the end of the tank and cluster. Siphoning was supplied to remove dead eggs, egg shells and deformed larval.
The newly hatched larval depends on yolk sac for their food for three days. There was no introduction of feed.


NURSING OF EARLY FRY.
At early fry, the larvae began to swim in a fish-like manner. At this time, the first feed given to them is ‘Artemia’ (shell free) and the feed were given at two hours interval provided that the previous feed has been consumed. In Teemartins aquaculture, an automated feeder is used in feeding them.

NURSING OF POST FRY
At this stage of development, care should be taken because the fry are very fragile. At this time, the feed introduced to them is artemia mixed with fishmeal and egg yolk (sieved). After one week of administration, they were given 0.2mm (coppens feed).


STAGES OF FISH DEVELOPMENT.
                                   
         FERTILIZED EGG
                                                                 |
         EARLY LARVAE
                                                                  |
            POST LARVAE
                                                                   |
                      FRY
                                                                    |
                 POST FRY
                                                                    |
              FINGERLINGS
                                                                     |
        POST FINGERLINGS
                                                                     |
                JUVENILES
                                                                        |
            POST JUVENILES
                                                                        |
               TABLE FISHES
                                                                        |
             BROODSTOCKS
                                                           


STOCKING OF POST FRY
 Adequate care is taken in transferring post fry because of their fragile nature. The frys were lowered gently into the nursery tanks and the post fry swam gently into the tanks. This stocking is done early in the morning or late in the evening to reduce stress and nervousness.

STOCKING OF FINGERLINGS
Care should be taken in stocking of fingerlings but depth of water and air is taken into consideration.

SORTING OF FINGERLINGS
They are sorted two weeks after stocking based on their sizes. This was aimed at;
1.     Reduce cannibalism
2.     Select shooters
3.     Grading them according to their size in concrete tanks
4.     Supply homogenous fingerlings to fish farmers


PROCEDURE FOR SORTING FINGERLINGS
1.     The pond water is drained completely by removing the outlet hose.
2.     Little water is added into the tanks and the fingerlings were being moved out into a bowl.
3.     Counting them to know the number
4.     They are sorted out into shooters, jumpers or juvenile, etc and either sold or stocked in a concrete pond for enough space.



3.7 FEED, FEEDING RATES
Fry, fingerlings and other sizes of fishes are fed with different feed made of well balanced mixtures in right proportion. Such feeds include; artemia, multi feed, coppens, vita feed, etc.


FEEDING PATTERN
They are fed three times daily, but as time goes on, they are fed twice a day, morning and evening. When feeding the fishes, they are fed at a particular edge of the pond/tank. Do not spread the feeds to avoid polluting their water.


NOTE: Their feeds are being weighed and measured before giving them. They are fed little by little until they are satisfied, initially when they are being fed, they rush the feed but when you see that they are no more eating as before, you stop giving them to avoid polluting the water with feed remnant and increasing ammonia level.
Also observe the fishes, when feeding them, if they don’t eat or rush the feed initially, know that their water has a problem then you change it.

3.8 STANDARD PROCEDURE FOR CHANGING WATER IN THE POND/TANK.
1.     When observed that the water quality is poor.
2.     Don’t feed the fishes for at least 12 hours to avoid vomiting of feeds by the fishes when draining water.
3.     Darin the water in the pond and record the duration of draining.
4.     Measure and record the litres of fuel to use/used in pumping water.
5.     Sort and weigh the fishes when the water drained, sort and weigh sample; measure the average weight and record.



For example: checking the body weight of the fishes.
Size of fishes
No of fishes
Total weight(g)
Average weight (g)
Biggest
10
3200g
320g
Medium
10
2400g
240g
Small
10
1375g
137.5g
Total
30
6975g
697.5g

To find the average weight of all the fishes= total weight of all the fishes
                                                                                        Total number of fishes
                                                            =6975/30 =232.5g.
6.     Pump water into the pond and record the duration of time used to fill thepond to the regained level.
7.     Feed the fishes after one hour of pumping water.
                                                                                                                                  

3.9 STANDARD PROCEDURE FOR FEEDING

CHECK THE WATER QUALITY
 



IF VERY POOR, DO NOT FEED                  IF GOOD, FEED


CHANGE THE WATER IF VERY POOR      FEED THE FISHES CONTIOUSLY
                                                                       UNTIL THEY STOP FEED INTAKE AND              
                                                                        ENSURE NO FEED IS LEFT FLOWING
                                                                        ON THE SURFACE OF THE WATER.

                                                                           MEASURE AND RECORD THE AMOUNT
                                                                           OF FEED GIVEN AND RECORD YOUR
                                                                           OBSERVETION.


3.10 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING THE AVERAGE WEIGHT OF FISHES
1.     Sort according to sizes into different basins. NOTE: Do not overload any basin with fishes and ensure there is enough water for them.
2.     Count the distinct sizes and record
3.     Do this for all distinct sizes
4.     Sum and record all distinct sizes
5.     Sum all the measured weight together and divide it by the number of fishes weighed to get the average weight.
6.     Weigh all the fishes together. (Don’t stress the fishes).

3.11 TESTING THE PH LEVEL OF WATER   
PH is the degree of acidity and alkalinity. It ranges from 0 to 14.

COLOUR CHART
This is used to detect the level of PH in water. There are two types;
=PH high range (from 7.4 to 8.6) test.
=PH low range (from 6.0 to 7.6) test.
A PH high and low range is between 6.0 to 9.0, middle is 7.5.
NOTE: PH high range is more comfortable in hatchery but low range is getting towards acidity which is not good, so it has to be normal. The normal PH range for pond is between 6.0 and 8.9.

EFFECTS OF PH
1.     Fish eggs will not hatch in acidic water
2.     For the fry, if PH is too high, they will become stressed up.
3.     For big fishes (table size fishes), the bigger the fishes the more they can adapt to their water.
4.     PH of high acidity kills smaller fishes (juvenile).
                          

  CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 POST HARVEST PROCESSING OF FISHES AND PACKAGING.
POST HARVEST PROCESSING OF FISHES
This include all steps, process and/or activities involved immediately after catch, handling and transportation, processing and distribution of fish and fishery products like; fish egg, fish oil, etc.
Fish is an important source of protein and its harvest, handling, processing and distribution provides livelihood for millions of people as well as providing valuable foreign exchange earnings to many countries. It is highly perishable food which requires careful and proper handling, processing and distribution. Demand for fish is growing and reduction in post-harvest losses can make a major contribution to satisfying this demand, improving quality and quantity for consumers and increasing income for the producer.
The main aim of fish processing is to prevent fish from deteriorating, this is very important in processing operations.

4.1 WAYS OF FISH PROCESSING.
There are various ways by which one can process fish.
Before the introduction of modern technology some methods such as salting and drying have been used since the ancient times other methods involve the use of chemicals and electrical devices. But whatever method is used, the fish to be processed should always be fresh.

4.2 DIFFERENT METHODS/TECHNIQUES OF FISH PROCESSING
We have salting, smoking, drying, curing, dehydration, canning and cooking.
1.    
SALTING: this is the process whereby the moisture or water content of fish are being lowered or reduced to a point where micro organisms cannot live and grow. Salt improves the texture of a fish because it firms up the fish; salt partially dehydrates the fish and kills the bacteria.

2.     SMOKING: this is the combination of salting precooking and drying. Smoking is the final process, this dehydrates the fish further, and the smoke gives colour and flavor to the fish.

3.     CURING: this method uses chemical preservatives (including vinegar and salt), smoke and other physical factors to reduce the moisture or water content of the fish.

4.     DEHYDRATING: this is an artificial process of drying because it is done with the use of mechanical devices such as an oven, which produce artificial heat for drying.

5.     COOKING: is the best way to prevent wastage or spoilage of fish.

6.     CANNING: is the packing of fish in air tight containers such as tin cans and glass jars, this prevents air and micro organism from entering. The heat processing, microbes inside the can are destroyed, thus preventing spoilage under normal condition and allowing the fish to be stored for longer period. Sardines and salmon are the most commonly canned fish in the market.
But the method that will be laid emphasized on in this report is “drying”. This is used in Teemartins Aquaculture.

DRYING
This method lowers the water content of the fish to a point where micro organisms, bacteria, enzymes and yeast cannot grow and multiply.

MATERIALS USED FOR DRYING OPERATION ARE;
1.     Smoking kiln
2.     Weighing scale
3.     Bowls
4.     Knife
5.     Fresh fishes
6.     Salt
7.     Charcoal/firewood
8.     Table top scaling machine
9.     Hand gloves
10.  Lab coat
11.Transparent nylon


STEPS IN DRYING
Step 1: HARVEST THE RAW FISHES :These are the fishes to be processed.
Step 2: KILLING THE FISHES
In killing the fishes, one makes sure that water is drained properly before killing them. The fishes are killed with electric shock or by stunning (i.e; hitting the fish on the head) or by deactivating them using salt (this makes them to struggle thereby causing them to be weak).
NOTE: Deactivating the fishes with salt doesn’t mean that the fishes die completely but it will make them to be very weak. Make sure you measure the quantity of salt to be used to avoid the fishes from being salty, and then pour the salt in the bowl containing the fishes and cover make sure that the bowl is water free.

Step 3: GUTTING AND WASHING
Gutting a process whereby the intestines of the fishes are being removed. You can either use a razor blade to gut or a knife. You slice or make an incision in the upper part (i.e close to the head) of the fish and then remove the intestines. After gutting, you wash the fishes with clean water.

NOTE: The intestines are removed to prevent odour emanating from the fish and also reduce the activities of micro organisms. When removing the intestines, also remove the fats because this will disturb the fish from drying well. The eggs maybe removed, or not, depending on one’s choice.


Step 4: SEASONING AND SOAKING
This is when the fishes are being soaked in salt solution. After gutting the fishes, wash them well and soak them In a salt solution. The salt gives the fishes a sweet taste.
NOTE: You have to measure the quantity of water to be used for soaking and also measure the quantity of salt. The fish is soaked for a particular period of time.
Another reason for putting the fish in salt solution is to stop bacteria activities. Drying does not change an already spoilt fish; rather it stops them from further spoilage. While seasoning, prepare the fire chamber.

Step 5: MAKING FORMS
After soaking the fishes to a required period of time, you arrange your trays for laying the fishes, then start making forms by either folding them or cutting them. Place the fishes on the trays.

Step 6: PREPARATION OF HEAT
In making the fire, you have to measure the quantity of charcoal and number of firewoods to be used. when the fire is set, you load the fishes. Maintain the heat but avoid excessive heat so the fishes do not get burnt. Re-heat when you notice the fire is low.

Step: HARVEST THE FISHES
Harvest the fishes when they are ready to the customer’s satisfaction.

PACKAGING AND LABELLING
Package the fishes and then label them. Then take them to warehouse for delivery.

IMPORTANCE OF FISH DRYING.
1.     If it become not possible to consume or sell all fish then drying is a suitable way for preserving.
2.     Preservation is also needed in such place where there is poor or no transportation system.
3.     Fish is very fast rotting being. So, drying is must to keep them freefrom rotting.
4.     Drying fish has a great demand in the market. It also helps to meet up the fish or protein demand.
5.     Drying is also being used as nutritious protein food for poultry.
6.     Dried fish stays for long time.
7.     As the drying weights less so, it cost less while transporting.


4.3 DEFINITIONS OF SOME TERMINOLOGIES USED
1.     Larvae: they are those tiny hatched fishes that are not able to feed themselves; they carry a yolk – sac which provides their nutrition.
2.     Fry: this refers to a recently hatched fish that has reached the stage where its yolk – sac has almost disappeared and its swim bladder is operational to the point where the fish can actively feed itself.

3.     Fingerlings: this refers to a fish that has reached the stage where the fins can be extended and where scales have started developing throughout the body, in this stage, the fish is typically about the size of a finger.

4.     Juvenile: fry and fingerlings are terms that can be applied to juvenile fish of most species.

5.     Table fish: these are fishes that are being raised to a particular size for consumption.
6.     Broodstock or broodfish: they are group of matured individuals (fishes) used for breeding purposes. Or group of sexually matured individuals of a cultured specie that is kept for breeding. They are maintained in captivity as a source replacement of seed and fry numbers.

                                       CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 EXTENSION WORK AT NIFFR (NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR FRESH-WATER FISHERIES RESEARCH) IN NIGER STATE.
I and some members of the Teemartins team went to the national center of specialization for fisheries in Nigeria, for training at NIFFER which is located at new Bussa, Niger State. We went to train some researchers and the fish processors in the adopted villages at new Bussa.

5.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING
1.     To step up the quality of fish processing in Nigeria.
2.     To upgrade the value of fish processing and hygiene.
3.     To set the standard of fish processing.

 5.2 THE TRAINING
The people involved were mostly women; they were used for the demonstration.

FIELD – TRIP
The Teemartins team and some researchers at NIFFR went for a field–trip to some adopted villages like; Fakun, Monai, and Mussawa. In these villages, we went to visit the fish processors to see how fish processing is being done and what they use in smoke – drying the fishes.
1.     We found out that there is no good hygiene during processing and they make use of a local smoking kiln called “BANDA” to smoke–dry the fish which is not insulated.
2.     During processing, a lot of fly perches on the fishes, the fishes are not being washed before putting them on fire for drying.
3.     During packaging, because hygiene is out of their goal, they package the fishes in cartons using bare hands, dry grasses that may contain some germs and insects, sands, these grasses are used to cover the packaged fishes in the carton. This will therefore make the fishes not to last for a long time.

5.3TEEMARTINS DEMONSTRATION AT ONE OF THE ADOPTED VILLAGES AT NIFFR
The people involved for the demonstration were mostly women (fish processors). Different species of fishes were used. They include; culture catfish (clarias spp), moon fish (citharinus spp/falia), Tilapia, Heterotis, Gymnacus, Tiger fish (Hydrocynus spp), Grass eater (Distichodus spp).
They were taught the different steps involved in fish processing/drying which include;
1.     Weighing the fishes, counting them and recording.
2.     Killing the fishes. They were taught different ways of killing fishes but the method we used was using salt to deactivate them, especially for catfish. Then gut and clean the fishes. After that, the fishes were soaked in saline solution; they were taught how to measure water and salt. Then we made forms by either folding the fishes or cutting them. Then the fishes were placed on trays from the drying kiln.
3.     They prepared the fire chamber using firewood. NIFFER insulated drying kiln was used for drying the fishes. Then the trays were loaded in the drying kiln after the kiln has been heated properly.
4.     The women took care of the fishes; they were taught how to check the fishes on interval basis by wearing hand gloves and turning the fishes when they were cool to avoid breaking them. It took 2–3 days to get dried properly. 
The women were taught how to package the fishes.

MATERIALS FOR PACKAGING INCLUDE;
1.     Table top sealer
2.     Hand gloves
3.     Facemask
4.     Transparent nylon
The fishes were sorted according to species. They were weighed and counted before packaging them in a transparent nylon and then sealed. They were also labeled and ready for sale.

5.4 INTERACTIVE SECTION
We had an interactive section with all the fish processors at New Bussa (both men and women) after the demonstration. There was a point display of the demonstration done with the women (fish processors). After watching the demonstration and explaining some things to them, they were all happy to be part of the training and they all learnt new things. The women leader shared her experience and told her colleagues what she learn so far and they were ready to adopt the new techniques shown to them.
                                   

6.0 CONCLUSION
The experience gained during the period of industrial attachment can never be measured. The training and practical received so far has exposed me to things I never knew before practical wise and am so grateful to the Federal Government for the good work they did by introducing this programme to students in the higher institution because it has made a lot of students to acquire skills and experience in their approved course of study thereby bridging the gap between theory and practical. With this I believe I will be able to set up my own aquaculture farm.

6.1 RECOMMMENDATION
In my own point of view, I strongly recommend that the Federal Government should make it mandatory for all students in higher institution to participate in these programmes.
Government should also encourage supervisors and students by paying them enumeration.

Also, Government should recommend some private firms and Government institutions where students can carry out their training.


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Chris Farm Nigeria develops well self-explanatory, irresistible feasibility studies or business plan for your Business start ups, Business Growth or Expansions through either personal funds, Grants, or loans, which could be new or existing ones. We delight in writing for people under Academic sectors, production sectors, manufacturing sectors, processing or packing sectors, advertising sectors, marketing sectors and other related sectors on mini, middle and large scale businesses.
For your Agribusiness, either production, processing, marketing of any Agro-industry, our feasibility studies or business plan are explicit. 


Generally, our feasibility study and business plans are developed so well that it becomes irresistible when you show them to your investors or sponsors. It gives you a clear picture of what you are expected to see when you put the feasibility study or business plans into use. It also shows how much it will cost you to own your desired business, what your money can afford. The kinds of product you will need to minimize input in other to maximize output, and how much returns you will get at the end of each accounting year until your business break-even on its initial investment capital. This will give the intending business person or investor or farmer, a vivid idea on the possible benefit he or she stands to gain, when he or she starts doing the business. With that, the intending business person or investor or farmer will not need a soothsayer to make decision for him or her.


You can use this format in developing your own business Plans and feasibility Study

OUR TABLE OF CONTENT INCLUDE;

  • SECTION I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
  • OFFICE & SITE LOCATION
  • MOTIVATION
  • MISSION STATEMENT
  • SOCIAL/ECONOMIC VALUE
  • PROJECT STATUS & START UP
  • WHY PREPARE THIS BUSINESS PLAN?
  • SECURITIES FOR THE PROPOSED LOAN
  • REPAYMENT
  • SECTION II – STUDY AREA
  • STUDY AREA
  • COMPANY OVERVIEW
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM
  • DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY
  • EXPERIENCE
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM GAPS
  • SECTION III – INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
  • DEFINING YOUR INDUSTRY
  • YOUR INDUSTRY SIZE GROWTH RATE AND SALES PROJECTIONS
  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
  • MARKET OVERVIEW
  • MARKET SEGMENTATION
  • RELEVANT MARKET SIZE
  • KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
  • LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE
  • MARKET CHARACTERISTICS
  • SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
  • SECTION IV – CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
  • TARGET CUSTOMERS
  • CUSTOMER NEEDS
  • MARKET NEEDS / SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
  • BUYERS BEHAVIOUR
  • MARKET SHARE
  • SALES FORECASTING
  • SECTION V – COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
  • DIRECT COMPETITORS
  • COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
  • SECTION VI – MARKETING PLAN
  • PRODUCTS & SERVICES
  • FINISHED PRODUCTS
  • PRODUCT QUALITY AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY
  • PRODUCTION CAPACITY
  • PRICING
  • PROMOTIONS PLAN
  • DISTRIBUTION PLAN
  • SECTION VII – OPERATIONS PLAN
  • GENERAL APPROACH TO PRODUCTION
  • TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
  • EQUIPMENT
  • PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
  • SECTION VIII – FINANCIAL PLAN
  • REVENUE MODEL
  • FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
  • FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS
  • FINANCE CHARGES
  • FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
  • FUNDING REQUIREMENTS/USE OF FUNDS
  • CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS



  • FINANCIAL MODELS
  • SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
  • BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
  • DEPRECIATION
  • UTILITIES
  • OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
  • TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
  • FINANCING PLAN
  • INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
  • BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
  • LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
  • FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
  • CASH FLOW
  • BALANCE SHEET
  • GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
  • BUSINESS RATIOS - PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
  • CONCLUSION
  • SECTION 3 – APPENDIX

   Click other related clicks that may interest you below;

 

Acceptable feasibility study and business plan for bank loans

Feasibility study on piggery farming business Agbarho community, delta state 

A PREPARED FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR CATFISH FARM IN NIGERIA 

“How to own, manage, and make millions from catfish farmingbusiness” BEST SELLER  

HOW TO OWN A MEGA FISH FARM BUSINESS IN NIGERIA

FLOATING FISH FEED PELLET MACHINE

TIPS ON BROILERS PRODUCTION AND ACTUAL VACCINATION –PROGRAMME AND TREATMENT

TIPS IN POULTRY MANAGEMENT

Sales of battery cage system in Nigeria

CASSAVA PROCESSING MACHINE

GRASS CUTTER/ CANE RAT PRODUCTION, BEST SELLER

How to handle and manage Snail farming

Rabbit Management

MANAGEMENT OF RABBITS, BEST SELLER



·         NOTE; According to our policy, we are not “allowed / permitted” to disclose peoples business or written feasibility study, “to anyone”, irrespective of their personality.

·        BUT, WE are permitted to display only executive summary.
·         This is just a sample of our executive summary on poultry feasibility study and business plan, carried out in Rivers State. 

·         1st sample;



These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study. 



Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi. 



Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration. 



After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.

HOW TO PLACE AN ORDER NOW?


  • Bank Deposit 
  • Electronic Fund Transfer or western money transfer 
  • ATM cash Transfer 
This payment method requires the customer to deposit, Electronic
Fund Transfer or ATM cash Transfer directly from his/her account into any of CHRIS FARM NIGERIA bank accounts.



If it is an E-Book, project materials, written project or written feasibility study, it will be sent to your immediately as soon as your transaction reflects in our account.



Please note; it will take ten working days to write (or prepare) a feasibility study or a project on your request.

Our bank details are on the website page, Just click on payment to get them



After placing your order, SMS your payment information (Manual title,

Name on teller, payment teller number, and your e-mail address)
E.g. catfish, Kelechi Bisi Amina,531796,allpurpose@yahoo.com
To +2348036925718 or +2348051270981 once I confirm your payment.
The material will be sent to your immediately! By e-mail Trust us 100% to do that.



Advantages of sending your request via email your e-book (electronic book) is downloadable from your e-mail box which allows you to read and print out this book



• Zero shipping costs.

• No wasting time, forget having to wait weeks for postal delivery.
• No risk of products lost in the mail or damaged



Thinking that we might live you after your purchase? Definitely no!

With the CBN policy in Nigeria via bank verification number (BVN), is almost impossible to steal your money from bank transfer or bank payment.



We assure you of maximum support when you need us. Please, do not hesitate to ask us for the way forward.  



Get in touch with us today on our phone numbers or send us an email. We await your response……………………….



WRITTEN AND COMPILED BY CHRIS FARM NIGERIA



WEBSITE: www.chrisfarmnigeria.com

EMAIL: chrisfarmnigeria@gmail.com
PHONE: +234(803)-692-5718 or +234(805)-127-0981
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• A big thank you for your patronage in advance

Your Success, Is Our Optimum Desire

AT Chris farm Nigeria, We Deliver the Best Services…
  
Other services we render are displayed on our advert below;

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  • We provide feasibility study/business plan for new and existing businesses
  • We help you to recruit staff for your company, firm or organizations
  • We help you in registering your company, firm or organizations
  • Suppliers of any food stuffs
  • Building contractor (especially building houses, constructions of ponds)
  • Provides Architect for any design
  • Help you in getting loans
  • Sales of fingerlings, table size catfish, chicks, Grass-cutters, rabbits, snails, and many more
  • Farm design
  • Feed formulation for general livestock, including
  • Floating/Sinking Fish feed
  • Soybean oil processing, Teachings on how to test soybean cake,
  • Teaching on how to remove the gummy and unpleasant smell of soybean oil
  • Palm Oil/Palm nut cracking
  • Fish Farming (Pond Construction and Fingerlings distribution)
  • Poultry farm (plus marketing ideas)
  • Rabbit farming
  • Snail Farming
  • Grass-cutter/cane rat Farming
  • Commercial Crop Farming
  • Handwork/Workshop Plan
  • Pure Water Business
  • Nylon production
  • Professional Website design (cooperate and personal)
  • Bulk SMS (plus re-seller website)
  • Business Software Design
  • Logo design plus company slogan
  • Printing Press (Graphic design, lithography, banners, poster, handbills etc)
  • Sales of battery cage for livestock farming all over Nigeria
  • E-books on; Broilers farming, Layers farming, Grass-cutter farming, Rabbit farming, Pig farming, Catfish farming, and many more……
  • How to own, manage, and make millions from catfish production (Most demanded)
  • Projecting writing, Sales of written projects, and many more

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