ITEMS NEEDED FOR SOAP PRODUCTION (BUSINESS PLAN ON ANY BUSINESS)

ITEMS NEEDED FOR SOAP PRODUCTION (BUSINESS PLAN ON ANY BUSINESS)
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-J_3W9r8_7sI/VeNE8EcXMCI/AAAAAAAABA8/aHvy27ZiAfw/s72-c/soap%2Bdet.jpg
   ITEMS TO BUY FOR 1KG
I.                   P.K.Oil one gallon (6 bottles)
II.                Caustic 1kg
III.             Ash 4kg
IV.            Hydrogen 1 bottle
V.               Forming agents ½ bottle or to taste.
VI.            Ammonia 1 rub
VII.         Perfume 2 rub or to taste
VIII.      Ammonia 1 rub.
IX.            Water 3 bottles.
PROCEDURES
i.                   Bring a big bowel.
ii.                 Add the 3 bottles of water
iii.              Put the caustic carefully and stir to dissolve.
iv.              Add the Ash little by little and stir very well.
v.                 Put the oil (pk) and turn very well.
vi.              Add the ammonia and turn very well.
vii.            Add the foaming agents and turn.
viii.         Ad perfume.
ix.              Pour the hydrogen little by little you will observe the mixture rising up continue turning and keep on pouring the hydrogen until it finished.
x.                 There turn it very well and allow it for some minutes.
xi.              Pour it on water proof to dry.
xii.            Sieve and package for use or sell.
NOTE: You can soak your caustic soda over night.

CAUTION:
1.     Caustic soda and soda Ash are EXTREMELY caustic and can cause burns if splashed on the skin. It could cause blindness if spattered in the eyes.
2.     Use caution when adding Iye (caustic soda and potash) to cold water, when stirring caustic (Iye) and when pouring the liquid soap into moles. If it is spilled on skin, wash immediately with cold water.  
3.     Wash off any caustic or green (uncured) soap spilled on furniture or counter tops.
4.     Always add caustic soda to cold water, never to hot water because the chemical action heats the cold water to the boiling point. It also produces harsh fumes which are harmful if breathed deeply. Stand back and avert the head while the caustic soda is dissolving. The use of gloves, glasses and draft vents is recommended. Because of these dangers, it is best to keep small children far from the place while soap is being produced. Avoid using aluminum containers to dissolve caustic soda. Always use rubber and plastic containers.

LIST OF CHEMICALS, NAMES, COMPOUND FORMULA, FUNCTIONS AND USES.
1.     PALM-KERNEL OIL (P.K.O)
(Elaeis guineensis) is an edible oil derives from the kernel of the oil palm.
USES:
          An ingredient in detergent production.
2.     CAUSTIC Other names: Iye, sodium hydroxide.
Molecular formula NAOH
          Caustic is white granules.
          Caustic is soluble in water, ethanol and methanol.
Uses of caustic: In used in many industries, mostly as a strong chemical base in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents and as a drain cleaner.
FUNCTIONS
Caustic soda neutralizes or adjusts the acidity of the other ingredients in soap and detergents production.
3.     POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE: Other names caustic potash, Ash and Iye.
Formula KOH
          Potassium Hydroxide forms white deliquescent crystals is usually white pellets. It dissolves readily in water, giving of much heat and forming a strong alkaline caustic solution.
Types: Light ash and hard ash.
Uses: Include pepper products, soap and detergents, etc. it allow bar soaps to harden.
4.     SODIUM SULPHATE: Is the sodium salt of sulfuric acid. It is a white crystalline solid.
FORMULA: Na2SO4
USES
          Sodium sulphate is mainly used for the manufacturing of the detergents and in the kraft process of pepper pulping. 
FUNCTIONS IN SOAP:
Sodium sulphate provides proper flow or solubility to soap. Cleans without leaving residue.
5.     HYDROGEN PEROXIDE: Is a clear liquid slightly more viscous than water.
USES: It has many function but it is mainly used in powered detergent production.
FUNCTIONS: It breakdown soaps particles  
6.      CALCIUM HYPOCHLORIDE: Other names Aqua chloro, (HTH) and chlorine used in bleach production, treating of drinking water also for cleansing.
NATURE: Solid and granules form.
7.     ANTISOL: Is a translucent, colourless brittle (when dry), flavorless solid substance.
          It is commonly used as a gelling agent.
Other names gelatin, part R. 
8.     GLYCERINE: A thick liquid substance. It serves as moisturize in facial cleaner.
9.     SODIUM LAURYL ETHER SULPHATE (SLES)
(S.L.S.) A cleansing agent and effective foamer.  
10.                        SULPHONIC ACID: A brownish or blackish thinkly liquid. It serves as foaming agent.
11.                        MENTHOL: Is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from peppermint or other mint oils. It is a waxy, crystalline substance, clear or white in colour. Solid at room temperature and melts slightly above.
12.                        INDUSTRIAL CONPHOR: A similar substance to menthol.
13.                        P.V.A. EMOTION:- It is used for production of bonds. (Gum or glue)
14.                        PHENOL: Other names, carbolic acid and phenic acid.

FORMULA: C6H50H
          It is serves as an antiseptic (germ-free) substance.
15.                        PERFUME: Other name fragrance it gives nice smell to the product.
16.                        Colours: gives colour to the products. Kinds of colours
i.                   Water colours and
ii.                 Oil colours.
17.                         FORMULINE: A colourless liquid substance. It look like water. It is commonly used as preservative.
18.                        Titan (white colour) 
19.                        CARBON COMPLEX are additives component.
It used in production of soap, paint chalk board e.t.c.
20.                        COCO DIETHANOL AMIDE (CDEA)
Foam or sud booster.
21.                        SODIUM SILICATE- A liquid substance That serve as hardening and leavening agent, prevent separation or deterioration of ingredients in liquid product.
22.                        SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE (STPP). A chemical that gives cleansing power
23.                        ETHYLENE DIAMINE TETRAACETIC
ACID (EDTA) Sequestering agents that makes the ingredients floats, used as forming stabilizer; also to reduce hardness in water.
24.                        TERGITOL:  Binder used for powered detergent.
25.                        SODIUM PHOSPHATE: Provides the abrasive strength; remove hard water minerals and this increase the effectiveness of detergents; prevents dirty from setting back in clothes during washing
26.                        Sodium chloride or table salt: Thickening agent; provides viscosity to the soap.
27.                        Methyl and propyl pareben:  Anti-microbial preservatives.
28.                        Triethanol amine (TEA) Emulsifier used in facial cleaner.
29.                        Benzalkonium chloride: disinfectant against bacteria, fungi and yeast.
30.                        Carboxyl methy cellulose (CMC) An anti-redeposition agents that prevent dirt from setting back in clothes during washing.
31.                        Lysor
32.                        Chlorozinol
33.                        Ethanol is an alcohol.
34.                        ethanol use in production of body perfume.
35.                        Juniper                          
36.                        Pine oil   
37.                        Petroleum jelly
38.                        Perofine oil
39.                        Parafine wax
40.                        Lanoline
NOTE; JUNIPER, PINE OIL, PETROLEUM JERRY, are commonly used for the production of hair cream, Vaseline pomades balm etc.      

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What easy do you want?  
Are you interested in fish management?
Are you interested in spawning (fish hatching)?
Do you want to handle your fish farm business yourself?
Do you want to run a fish farm business?
Are you having issues with your fish farm?
Do you want to make millions from your fish farm business?
Then, you need this book;
“How to own, manage, and make millions from catfish farming business”  
  
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 CONTENT                                                              
·                       Title Page
·                       Table of Content
·                       Dedication
·                       Acknowledgement
·                       Preface
Chapter One: Introduction
    Catfish
   1.2       Why is catfish different from other fishes?
  1.3       Fish classification
  1.4       Habitat
  1.5       Morphology
Chapter Two:
2.0      Giant Catfish of the World 
2.1       Scientific classification
2.2       SPECIES CHARACTERISTICS
Chapter Three:
3.0       Catfish Family
3.1       Larval production
3.2       The culture system  
3.3       Feed and Feeding
3.4       Hybridization of catfish
3.5       Culture system modification
3.6       Prospect and problems of cultured fish  
Chapter Four:
4.0       How to own a Mega fish farm Business
Chapter Five:
5.0       Pond
5.1       standard features of a fish pond
5.2       Types of pond
5.3       Earthen (Natural) Pond
5.4       Concrete Pond
5.5       Tarpaulin/Plastic/ Mobile Pond
5.6       Step in fish Pond establishment
5.7       Important of liming
5.8       Fertilizing a pond
5.9       Fish Pond management
Chapter Six:
6.0         Fish Stocking
6.1 Stocking of fish can take the form of mono/poly-culture
Chapter Seven:
7.0       channel catfish
7.1       Species of channel catfish
6.2       Life cycle of channel catfish
Chapter Eight:
8.0       The Electric Catfish
8.1       Feeding in electric catfish
8.2       Firing in electric fish
8.3       Importance tips in managing electric catfish
Chapter Nine:
9.0       African Giant catfish
9.1       Habits of African catfish in the wide
9.2       Natural spawning in the wide
9.3       Rearing of African giant catfish
Chapter Ten:
10.0     Spawning
10.1     Hatching techniques in catfish
10.2     materials needed for (hatching) spawning
10.3     Prerequisite for (Hatching) spawning in catfish
10.4     Steps in (hatching) spawning
10.5     Some reasons why spawning (Hatching) falls
10.6     Characteristics of catfish stages
10.7     Transportation of catfish
Chapter Eleven:
11.0     Fish Management
11.1     How to identify oxygen Depletion in ponds
11.2     Questions most people ask about catfish management           
Chapter Twelve:
12.0     Fish parasite and Diseases 
12.1     Fish Disease
12.2     Causes of Diseases
12.3     Types of Disease
Chapter Three:
13.0     Fish preservation
13.1     Method of fish preservation
13.2     Fish salting
13.3     Drying and Dehydration
13.4     Fish smoking
13.5     How to smoke fish
Chapter Fourteen:
14.0     How to make millions from catfish production
14.1     Advertising
14.2     Marketing
14.3     Marketing strategy
14.4     How to sustain millions in catfish business
List of figures
Fig.1.1 Labeled diagram of a typical tilapia fish
Fig 1.2 labeled diagram of a typical catfish
Fig 1.3 Labeled diagram of a typical external anatomy of a tilapia fish
Fig 1.4 Labeled diagram of a typical external anatomy of a carpio cyprisnus
Fig 1.5 Labeled diagram of a typical internal anatomy of a tilapia fish
Fig 1.6 Typical example of catfish
Fig 8.1 Diagram of electric catfish organs
Fig 9.1 claries gariepinus sample
Fig 9.2 Heterobranchus Bidorsal Sample
Fig 10.1 Diagram on how to inject the catfish
Fig 10.2 Diagram on how to extract the milt (sperm) from catfish
Fig 10/3 Diagram on how to strip off eggs from catfish and to fertilize them
List of tables
Table 2.1 scientific classification of catfish
Table 3.1 catfish families
Table 5.1 table showing water retention in soil
Table 8.1 scientific classification of electric catfish
Table 9.1 African Giant catfish
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