FISH CLONING AND CATFISH HATCHING

FISH CLONING AND CATFISH HATCHING
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INTRODUCTION
Cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as fish, bacteria, and insects, and other animals including humans or plants reproduce asexually.

Cloning in Biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms. Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules, cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequence and randomly fragmented DNA. It is used in a wide array of biological experiments and practical applications ranging from genetic fingerprint to large scale protein production.


Cloning of any DNA fragment essentially involves four steps;
Fragmentation:  Breaking apart a strand of DNA.
Ligation: Gluing together pieces of DNA in a desired sequence.
Transfect ion: Inserting the newly formed pieces of DNA into cells.
Screening/ Selection: Selecting out the cells that were successfully transfected with the new DNA.
MATERIALS FOR FISH CLONING
METHOD OF FISH CLONING
Using Zebra fish as example;
Zebra fish served as an excellent model for understanding normal development and birth defects. More recently, research with Zebra fish has extended to model human diseases and to analyze the formation and functions of cell populations with organs.
 The normal cloning technique uses an unfertilized egg and a donor cell. The DNA is removed from the egg and replaced from the donor. The egg is then coaxed into dividing the resulting fish is an exact genetic copy of the donor.
Using Gibelli and colleges technique, the egg is gently removed from the female Zebra fish and placed in a solution of ovarian fluyid from a chinnok salmon. This worked well, because it kept the egg inactive for sometime in about two or three hours. Zebra fish was useful in the exercise because their eggs are transparent and the fish development is easy to follow.
Though reproductive cloning generally uses somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to create organisms that are generally identical. This process entails the transfer of a nucleus from a donor adult cell (somatic cell) to an egg from which the nucleus has been removed, or to a cell from a blast cyst. If the egg begins to divide normally, it is transferred into the uterus of the surrogate mother. Additionally the mitochondria in the cytoplasm also contains DNA and during SCNT, this mitochondrial DNA is wholly from the cytoplasm donor’s egg, thus the mitochondrial genome is not the same as that of the nucleus donor cell from which it was produced.  This may have important implications split for cross species nuclear transfer in which nuclear mitochondrial incompatibilities may lead to death. Artificial embryo splitting or embryo twinning, a technique that creates monozygotic twins from a single embryo is not considered in the same fashion as other methods of cloning. During the procedure, a donor embryo is split in two distinct embryos that can then be transferred via embryo transfer. It is optimally performed at the 6 to 8 cell stage, where it can be used as an expansion of IVF to increase the number of available embryos. If both embryos are successful, it gives rise to monozygotic (identical) twins.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FISH CLONING
Advantages:
Ø The exercise produces new offspring that are genetically identical, they will all have the desired characteristics.
Ø  Organisms that are difficult or slow to breed normally can be reproduced quickly.
Disadvantages:
Ø If a clone is susceptible to disease or changes in the environment, then all the clones will be susceptible.
Ø It will lead to less variation, and less opportunity to create new varieties in future.

SIGNIFICANCE OF FISH CLONING IN BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
·        Molecular cloning allows scientists to not only discover what proteins are present and their function, but also explore what happens in a cell wall when these proteins are changed. When studying cell divisions, specifically, scientists look for proteins that control the beginning and end of division, even the replication within the cell, example; Histones.
·        By manipulating cells with cloning and learning more about specific proteins, scientists can take their research and apply it to large- sale research endeavors like diseases and pathogens.
·        It is vital to note, however, the cloning is not used to study just proteins involved in the cell cycle. Molecular cloning has lead scientists to discover the entire genetic sequences of many different species, inactivate genes in both human and other organisms and create transgenic like herbicide resistant plants and glow- in- the dark fish. For instance, when tropical fish give off a slight glow because they have been marked with the same fluorescence that is native to some species of jellyfish.
·        The biotechnology significance; the cloning of zebra fish by nuclear transfer from long- term cultured cells opens a new avenue for gene targeting in this important model organism.
Reference:
·        Textbook of somatic cell nuclear transfer- Embryo twinning. By; Hans Diriesh (1885), Article on cloning- Star Garden (April 2014).
·        Article on MSU Researchers- Improve cloning method for zebra fish. By; Jose Cibelli and Tom Oswald (August 2009).
·        Article on Nature methods. By; G L. Kohuth (Michigan state university- September 2009).
·        Textbook on Heat shock genes and their functional significance in fish. By; A E. Todgham, P A. Ackerman, George K. Iwama (2002).
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OUR TABLE OF CONTENT INCLUDE;

SECTION 1(Business plan section)
  • SECTION I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
  • OFFICE & SITE LOCATION
  • MOTIVATION
  • MISSION STATEMENT
  • SOCIAL/ECONOMIC VALUE
  • PROJECT STATUS & START UP
  • WHY PREPARE THIS BUSINESS PLAN?
  • SECURITIES FOR THE PROPOSED LOAN
  • REPAYMENT
  • SECTION II – STUDY AREA
  • STUDY AREA
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  • DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY
  • EXPERIENCE
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM GAPS
  • SECTION III – INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
  • DEFINING YOUR INDUSTRY
  • YOUR INDUSTRY SIZE GROWTH RATE AND SALES PROJECTIONS
  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
  • MARKET OVERVIEW
  • MARKET SEGMENTATION
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  • KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
  • LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE
  • MARKET CHARACTERISTICS
  • SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
  • SECTION IV – CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
  • TARGET CUSTOMERS
  • CUSTOMER NEEDS
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  • BUYERS BEHAVIOUR
  • MARKET SHARE
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  • SECTION V – COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
  • DIRECT COMPETITORS
  • COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
  • SECTION VI – MARKETING PLAN
  • PRODUCTS & SERVICES
  • FINISHED PRODUCTS
  • PRODUCT QUALITY AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY
  • PRODUCTION CAPACITY
  • PRICING
  • PROMOTIONS PLAN
  • DISTRIBUTION PLAN
  • SECTION VII – OPERATIONS PLAN
  • GENERAL APPROACH TO PRODUCTION
  • TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
  • EQUIPMENT
  • PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
  • SECTION VIII – FINANCIAL PLAN
  • REVENUE MODEL
  • FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
  • FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS
  • FINANCE CHARGES
  • FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
  • FUNDING REQUIREMENTS/USE OF FUNDS
  • CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS


SECTION 2(Feasibility study section)

  • FINANCIAL MODELS
  • SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
  • BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
  • DEPRECIATION
  • UTILITIES
  • OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
  • TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
  • FINANCING PLAN
  • INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
  • BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
  • LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
  • FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
  • CASH FLOW
  • BALANCE SHEET
  • GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
  • BUSINESS RATIOS - PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
  • CONCLUSION
  • SECTION 3 – APPENDIX

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·         NOTE; According to our policy, we are not “allowed / permitted” to disclose peoples business or written feasibility study, “to anyone”, irrespective of their personality.

·        BUT, WE are permitted to display only executive summary.
·         This is just a sample of our executive summary on poultry feasibility study and business plan, carried out in Rivers State. 

·         1st sample;

These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study. 

Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi. 

Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration. 

After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.

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