SOME DISEASES AND VACCINATION / ROUTINE TREATMENT IN POULTRY

SOME DISEASES AND VACCINATION / ROUTINE TREATMENT IN POULTRY
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INTRODUCTION

Disease is the deviation from normal condition to an abnormal condition brought about by the effect of pathogens or nutritional deficiency.

Two factors can be responsible for disease outbreak in poultry.


1.     INTERNAL FACTORS: heredity, age of animal etc.
2.     EXTERNAL FACTORS:
·        Lack of adequate food, water or proper hygiene,
·        Sudden change in climate.
·        Poor management.
·        Microorganisms.
GENERAL SYMPTOMS:
·        Loss of appetite
·        Coldness
·        Weakness / sleepiness
·        Droopy feather
·        Paleness in appearance
·        Loss of the entire condition and weight
·        If it happens in egg production birds, there is drastic drop in eggs production.
GENERAL PREVENTION
·        Immunization (vaccination of the mother)
·        Vacation (introduction of a mild causative agent, into a healthy animal to build up immunity or to act as antibody).
·        Feeding (giving the correct food / needs to the animal)
·        Adequate hygiene

TYPES OF DISEASES:
Diseases can be classified under two broad headings:
A.    Pathogenic disease
B.     Nutritional disease

A.    Pathogen diseases include: Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasites
I.                   External
II.                Internal
1a. Examples of bacteria diseases are;

  • Pullorum
  • Tuberculosis
  • Yolk sac infection
  • Fowl cholera
  • Fowl typhoid
1b. Examples of viral diseases include:

  •  Newcastle
  •  Gumboro
  •  Fowl pox
1c. Examples of fungi diseases

  •        Aspajulosis
1d. Examples of protozoa diseases:

  •       Coccidiosis
  •       Histomonasis
The inhabits the lining of the intestine so that the begin to pas bloody stool.
1e. Example of the external parasites

  • Fowl pox
  •  Lice
  •  Myths
1f. examples of internal parasites:

  •       Ascaris
  •       Tape worm (taenia solium)
 VACCINATION / ROUTINE TREATMENT
To give vaccination, you must know the ration for the whole birds. For example if they are eating twenty kilograms of feed, they drink twice of what they eat which means that they will be taking forty liters of water.
If they drink forty liters of water per day and vaccine is not supposed to last for more than hours. Multiply this by two the hours the vaccination must exceed. The result is the volume of water in which to put the vaccination. Check for the dose of the vaccine before putting it into their water and if the dose in meant for 1000 birds and your stock is 700 birds. To give the vaccine to our birds we firstly input 10cm of distilled water in our syringe, we now put the syringe into the vaccine, push in the 10cm of distilled water into the vaccine and then shake to dissolve the powered vaccine, and then take 7cm of the dissolved vaccine and put it into their water.
3.13.5 FACTORS CONSIDER IN VACCINATING
·        Do not vaccinate sick animals.
·        Preserve the vaccine in refrigerator or in a cool temperature..
·        Do not expose it when you are about using it under the sun (use flask)
·        Do not use concentrated or treated water.
·        Give at least two to three weeks interval before the next vaccination.
·        Wash and sterilise syringe before usage.
·        Do not reuse any open vaccine.
·        Before you vaccinate, keep the birds off water for at least three hours before the time of vaccination.
·        Burn or bury any unused or left over vaccine
·        Always give security dosage i.e. a little addition.

NB: some vaccination is can be injected while others are oral, so give according to the manufacturer’s prescriptions.
On the 1st day you should

  • Newcastle disease vaccine. This is intraocular i.e this vaccine is given in the eye.
  • Mark disease, this is intramuscular.

 


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  • NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
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  • SOCIAL/ECONOMIC VALUE
  • PROJECT STATUS & START UP
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SECTION 2(Feasibility study section)

  • FINANCIAL MODELS
  • SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
  • BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
  • DEPRECIATION
  • UTILITIES
  • OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
  • TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
  • FINANCING PLAN
  • INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
  • BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
  • LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
  • FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
  • CASH FLOW
  • BALANCE SHEET
  • GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
  • BUSINESS RATIOS - PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
  • CONCLUSION
  • SECTION 3 – APPENDIX

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·         NOTE; According to our policy, we are not “allowed / permitted” to disclose peoples business or written feasibility study, “to anyone”, irrespective of their personality.

·        BUT, WE are permitted to display only executive summary.
·         This is just a sample of our executive summary on poultry feasibility study and business plan, carried out in Rivers State. 

·         1st sample;

These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study. 

Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi. 

Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration. 

After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.

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