Fish Farming At Your Home

Fish Farming At Your Home
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FISH FARMING TIPS

Fish farming is the principle form of aquaculture, which other method fall under Mari culture. Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks, concrete pond, and earthy pound or enclosures, usually for food.

The world most important fish species used in fish farming are carp, salmon tilapia and catfish.
There is an increasing demand for fish and fish protein, which has resulted in widespread over-fishing in wild.

Fish farming involves nurturing of fish from fingerling to adult table size suitable for scale and consumption. The following are the basic requirements for a successful growing – out farming.
TYPES OF PONDS
1.     Earthen pound.
2.     Concrete pound
3.     Tarpaulin pond
4.     Plastic pound

CONCRETE POND
Concrete pound are constructed using concrete materials (blocks, cement, sand etc.) of this there different type are in operations and they are: stagnant concrete system, free flow concrete system and re-circulatory concrete system.

3.3 POUND SYSTEM OR TYPE OF OPERATION
1.     STAGNANT SYSTEM
It is constructed in a way where water once pumped in will remain until when you notice that the water is bad before you change it this type of pound compared to other concrete types is cheaper to construct and maintain but in terms of stocking capacity, fish growth and output, it gives least result regarding performance. Stocking density is between 10 – 20 fish per square meter.

2.     FREE FLOW CONCRETE SYSTEM / FLOW THROUGH SYSTEM
This pound system, works on the principle that fresh water flow into the pound continuously, while waste water from the pound flow out continuously discharge into the waste pit. The running of the water is not necessarily continuously for 24h0urs every day rather it can be made to run slopped intermittently every 4 – 6 hours.
The major short come of this system is that water wastage is very high in which case it may not be very feasible when constant water availably is not guaranteed. But the benefits are tremendous. Firstly, stocking capacity is near equal to that of the re circulatory pound system. Stocking density is between 50 – 100 fish per square meter.
3.     WATER RE-CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
The pound type is such that there is a complete water refining and circulation. The principle behind this type of pound system is such that, there is high water reservoir tanks enter into the pound and at the same time water waste is discharged from the pound into a refining  BIO chamber from where it’s passed through a series of sedimentation tanks.
This pound type is the most advanced in term of water efficiency, stocking capacity, water quality and percentage of dissolve oxygen in the pound. The output weight whatever cost and maintains implications this is because the stocking capacity is higher, fish growth is faster, the harvest period is shorter and water consumption is lesser. Stocking density is between 100 – 350 fish per square meter.

4.     EARTHEN (NATURAL) POUND
This type of pound is limited to area where there is clay soil and underground water source only. In essence this type of pound is best sited in swampy areas, where there is freshwater source, whose sand is solid enough to construct the dyke. It could also be site on a slope or a flat land with clay soil and fresh water source. The major problem of this type is “security” if fencing or security is not employed, you may lose your investment and sorting is very cumbersome.
However, it is cheaper to construct, possible of a large stocking capacity, fish growth is very rapid and size bigger, profitability is higher and environment is more conductive for aquaculture. However, stocking density is very low between 5 – 10 fish per square meter.
Having analysis the various fish pound systems, it is hereby advised that before you consider which type of operate, you have to consider the following: size of the investment / operation whether you want to do it on full or part time what basic resources do you have in place.
The growth of a fish depends on the nature of the water and the type of feed they eat.
The feed takes the major capital invested on fish production.

3.4 DISEASES THAT AFFECT CATFISH
Disease can be defined as a state of deviation from normal to abnormal in living organism. There are many disease that affect catfish, it can be cause by internal or external factors.
Internal factors are hereditary, age of the fish.
External factors: These diseases are cause through feed intake, poor water quality e.g. PH, Temperature salinity turbidity, nutritional deficiency and Pre disposing factor e.g. injure.
3.4.1 TYPES OF DISEASE
They are classified into two types pathogenic and nutritional

3.5 FEEDING PROCESS FOR CATFISH
At the larvae stage, fishes are said to be in their non – feeding age, they depend on the left over yolk sac for its nutrients and this periods the fish air bladder and its internal organs are develop. Fish from the day of hatching to next four (4) days is regarded as larvae.

3.5.1 FEEDING OF THE FRIERS
After the larvae stage is friers. When the friers have completely feed on their yolk sac, they are now feed with ‘Artemia shell free’. This will
Day 1 – day 3 they should be allow to feed on their yolk.
Day 4 – day 11 they firstly are feed with anthemia and wither foreign food of 0.2mm 

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OUR TABLE OF CONTENT INCLUDE;

SECTION 1(Business plan section)
  • SECTION I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
  • OFFICE & SITE LOCATION
  • MOTIVATION
  • MISSION STATEMENT
  • SOCIAL/ECONOMIC VALUE
  • PROJECT STATUS & START UP
  • WHY PREPARE THIS BUSINESS PLAN?
  • SECURITIES FOR THE PROPOSED LOAN
  • REPAYMENT
  • SECTION II – STUDY AREA
  • STUDY AREA
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  • DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY
  • EXPERIENCE
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM GAPS
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  • DEFINING YOUR INDUSTRY
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  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
  • MARKET OVERVIEW
  • MARKET SEGMENTATION
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  • KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
  • LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE
  • MARKET CHARACTERISTICS
  • SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
  • SECTION IV – CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
  • TARGET CUSTOMERS
  • CUSTOMER NEEDS
  • MARKET NEEDS / SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
  • BUYERS BEHAVIOUR
  • MARKET SHARE
  • SALES FORECASTING
  • SECTION V – COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
  • DIRECT COMPETITORS
  • COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
  • SECTION VI – MARKETING PLAN
  • PRODUCTS & SERVICES
  • FINISHED PRODUCTS
  • PRODUCT QUALITY AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY
  • PRODUCTION CAPACITY
  • PRICING
  • PROMOTIONS PLAN
  • DISTRIBUTION PLAN
  • SECTION VII – OPERATIONS PLAN
  • GENERAL APPROACH TO PRODUCTION
  • TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
  • EQUIPMENT
  • PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
  • SECTION VIII – FINANCIAL PLAN
  • REVENUE MODEL
  • FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
  • FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS
  • FINANCE CHARGES
  • FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
  • FUNDING REQUIREMENTS/USE OF FUNDS
  • CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS


SECTION 2(Feasibility study section)

  • FINANCIAL MODELS
  • SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
  • BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
  • DEPRECIATION
  • UTILITIES
  • OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
  • TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
  • FINANCING PLAN
  • INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
  • BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
  • LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
  • FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
  • CASH FLOW
  • BALANCE SHEET
  • GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
  • BUSINESS RATIOS - PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
  • CONCLUSION
  • SECTION 3 – APPENDIX

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·         NOTE; According to our policy, we are not “allowed / permitted” to disclose peoples business or written feasibility study, “to anyone”, irrespective of their personality.

·        BUT, WE are permitted to display only executive summary.
·         This is just a sample of our executive summary on poultry feasibility study and business plan, carried out in Rivers State. 

·         1st sample;

These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study. 

Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi. 

Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration. 

After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.

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