Reduce sludge and increase Oxygen on your ponds (Farm Business)

Reduce sludge and increase Oxygen on your ponds (Farm Business)
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The Problem

The worldwide seafood catch is declining because of over-fishing, pollution and expanding populations. Although aquaculture now represents only a small percent of the combined total, a leveling off of the supply of seafood together with the rising demand for fin fish and crustaceans means that aquaculture is the growth industry of the future. In this light, much emphasis has been placed on species selection, adaptation, feeding, rearing, harvesting, equipment or on other physical devices. But, little thought has been given to the accompanying aquatic environment, other than to change the water.

Mother Nature just can’t cope with the overload in the oceans, let alone the accumulation of uneaten feed, excreta, etc. in a confined aquatic environment. Where the water can be changed, it must be cleaned more often. Where the water can’t be changed, the confined aquatic environment deteriorates and so do profits.


Accumulation of uneaten feed and excreta create a sludge on the bottom and turbid water above. Digestion by indigenous microorganisms is slow and takes dissolved oxygen away from the crop. In addition, there is a build-up of ammonia, nitrites and other toxic or inhibitory products. Therefore, to improve the aquatic environment, there must be a reduction in accumulation of these substances. It is evident that these problems will not go away on their own. Also, it is evident that chemical and physical methods are costly and are only temporarily beneficial.  To that end, what can be done that is both safe and cost effective?

The Solution

The best point of attack is to reduce the accumulation of sludge. This is done by bioaugmentation of the existing microorganisms through regular addition of biological active seed cultures such as ESS Microbes on a regular preventive maintenance schedule. Bioaugmentation means helping Mother Nature do a better job microbiologically by supplementing the indigenous microflora. This is in contrast to the continued use of chemicals or increasing the frequency of water change, if, in fact, the water can be changed at all. Just like aspirin relieves some cold symptoms but does not cure the cold, chemical additives or water changes temporarily relieve the symptoms of the poor aquatic environment, but do not cure the problem.

Biologically Active Seed Cultures

Nature abounds with microbial cultures in the air, soil and water. These microflora exist because they have adapted and continue to adapt to changes in the environment. They have adapted because they can metabolize certain surrounding substances to obtain energy and nutrients. But, this does not mean they can handle an ever-increasing load.

An aquatic environment with few fish or crustaceans would probably clean itself over time. However, such a system would not feed many people or make a profit for the grower. Intensive aquaculture involves many fish or crustaceans and as many cycles as possible during a season. Accordingly, the aquatic environment is not able to clean itself under these circumstances, and limits have been reached in many places as to water changes and the benefits of more chemical additives.
Mortality and poor or abnormal growth are symptoms of a bad aquatic environment. If the aquatic environment is improved, the symptoms will disappear because the cause has been eliminated. How can this be done?

The answer is bioaugmentation by regular additions of ESS Microbes which contains several strains of naturally-occurring microorganisms that have been isolated and trained to produce large amounts of digestive enzymes when introduced into an aquatic environment. This on the job training has been done to the extent that these biologically active seed cultures are strains which are 1000 times more active than those found in nature. By adding on a regular basis, these more efficient cultures establish themselves and maintain dominance over those less efficient already present.

Nitrification and Denitrification

Nitrification is a two-step process than involves two groups of microorganisms. The first step is oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Nitrosomonas is the most common genus involved in this reaction. The most common genus involved in the second stage, oxidation of nitrite to nitrate, is Nitrobacter. Both of these genera are autotrophic and subject to dissolved oxygen (DO) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) limits. They are very fastidious in growth habits and attempts to culture them commercially have met with little success. Although ESS Microbes does not contain either, the product enhances the natural action by creating a more favorable environment, particularly by reducing the BOD. In addition, ammonia may be oxidized directly to nitrogen gas. In any event, the ammonia levels are reduced.

Several heterotrophic bacteria that aerobically oxidize organic matter can also reduce nitrites and nitrates and thus function as facultative denitrifiers. Among these are members or the genus Bacillus. ESS Microbes contains four species of this genus and the product functions as a facultative denitrifier as evidenced by university results which showed reductions in accumulation of nitrites and nitrates. Under low DO, the oxygen in nitrites and nitrates is utilized. However, as stated above reduction in nitrites and nitrates may be because of reduced ammonia accumulation.

The autotrophic denitrifiers do not function when the DO is above a critical level of 0.1 to 0.2 mg./L. A DO similar to this or slightly higher than that for the autotrophs will also inhibit activity of the facultative denitrifiers. If enough DO is available, this will be used in preference to the oxygen in nitrites and nitrates.

Presence of carbonaceous matter (sludge such as accumulated excreta, uneaten feed, etc.) will inhibit denitrification by the autotrophs. This does not influence the facultative microorganisms. ESS Microbes reduces sludge generation and accumulation as shown by its use in waste treatment plants and by university data. ESS Microbes is a special formulation of ESS Microbes designed for use in saltwater aquaculture systems.

Summary
ESS Microbes does not contain Nitrosomonas or Nitrobacter. However, not only does this product function as a facultative denitrifier, it also creates a more favorable environment for the autotrophs by reducing the BOD. In addition, ESS Microbes may oxidize or otherwise utilize ammonia directly.


Chris Farm Nigeria develops well self-explanatory, irresistible feasibility studies or business plan for your Business start ups, Business Growth or Expansions through either personal funds, Grants, or loans, which could be new or existing ones. We delight in writing for people under Academic sectors, production sectors, manufacturing sectors, processing or packing sectors, advertising sectors, marketing sectors and other related sectors on mini, middle and large scale businesses.
For your Agribusiness, either production, processing, marketing of any Agro-industry, our feasibility studies or business plan are explicit.
Generally, our feasibility study and business plans are developed so well that it becomes irresistible when you show them to your investors or sponsors. It gives you a clear picture of what you are expected to see when you put the feasibility study or business plans into use. It also shows how much it will cost you to own your desired business, what your money can afford. The kinds of product you will need to minimize input in other to maximize output, and how much returns you will get at the end of each accounting year until your business break-even on its initial investment capital. This will give the intending business person or investor or farmer, a vivid idea on the possible benefit he or she stands to gain, when he or she starts doing the business. With that, the intending business person or investor or farmer will not need a soothsayer to make decision for him or her.
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OUR TABLE OF CONTENT INCLUDE;

SECTION 1(Business plan section)
  • SECTION I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
  • OFFICE & SITE LOCATION
  • MOTIVATION
  • MISSION STATEMENT
  • SOCIAL/ECONOMIC VALUE
  • PROJECT STATUS & START UP
  • WHY PREPARE THIS BUSINESS PLAN?
  • SECURITIES FOR THE PROPOSED LOAN
  • REPAYMENT
  • SECTION II – STUDY AREA
  • STUDY AREA
  • COMPANY OVERVIEW
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM
  • DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY
  • EXPERIENCE
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM GAPS
  • SECTION III – INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
  • DEFINING YOUR INDUSTRY
  • YOUR INDUSTRY SIZE GROWTH RATE AND SALES PROJECTIONS
  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
  • MARKET OVERVIEW
  • MARKET SEGMENTATION
  • RELEVANT MARKET SIZE
  • KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
  • LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE
  • MARKET CHARACTERISTICS
  • SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
  • SECTION IV – CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
  • TARGET CUSTOMERS
  • CUSTOMER NEEDS
  • MARKET NEEDS / SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
  • BUYERS BEHAVIOUR
  • MARKET SHARE
  • SALES FORECASTING
  • SECTION V – COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
  • DIRECT COMPETITORS
  • COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
  • SECTION VI – MARKETING PLAN
  • PRODUCTS & SERVICES
  • FINISHED PRODUCTS
  • PRODUCT QUALITY AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY
  • PRODUCTION CAPACITY
  • PRICING
  • PROMOTIONS PLAN
  • DISTRIBUTION PLAN
  • SECTION VII – OPERATIONS PLAN
  • GENERAL APPROACH TO PRODUCTION
  • TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
  • EQUIPMENT
  • PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
  • SECTION VIII – FINANCIAL PLAN
  • REVENUE MODEL
  • FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
  • FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS
  • FINANCE CHARGES
  • FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
  • FUNDING REQUIREMENTS/USE OF FUNDS
  • CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS


SECTION 2(Feasibility study section)

  • FINANCIAL MODELS
  • SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
  • BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
  • DEPRECIATION
  • UTILITIES
  • OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
  • TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
  • FINANCING PLAN
  • INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
  • BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
  • LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
  • FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
  • CASH FLOW
  • BALANCE SHEET
  • GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
  • BUSINESS RATIOS - PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
  • CONCLUSION
  • SECTION 3 – APPENDIX

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·         NOTE; According to our policy, we are not “allowed / permitted” to disclose peoples business or written feasibility study, “to anyone”, irrespective of their personality.

·        BUT, WE are permitted to display only executive summary.
·         This is just a sample of our executive summary on poultry feasibility study and business plan, carried out in Rivers State. 

·         1st sample;

These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study. 

Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi. 

Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration. 

After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.

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