FEED ENZYMES AND ANTI-NUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN FISH FEED PRODUCTIONS

FEED ENZYMES AND ANTI-NUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN FISH FEED PRODUCTIONS
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The expansion of global aquaculture production is increasing the demand for aquaculture feeds. Fish meal is the main and most critical ingredient in aqua feed production. The increasing cost of fish meal has encouraged feed manufacturers search for cheaper alternative protein sources such as plant proteins. Though the palatability of many plant materials has demerits, anti-nutritional factors are the most serious concern in replacing the fish meal completely in feed formulations.
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Anti-nutritional factors have an adverse impact on the digestion of feed and its efficiency. There are many kinds of anti-nutritional factors. Three that are associated with the most widely used plant materials are trypsin inhibitor proteins, glucosinolates and phytate. Heat inactivation and water soaking are the two common detoxification methods used to overcome most of the anti-nutritional factors.

Enzymes provide additional powerful tools that can inactivate anti-nutritional factors and enhance the nutritional value of plant-based protein in feeds. They provide a natural way to transform complex feed components into absorbable nutrients. Endogenous enzymes found in the fishes digestive system help to break down large organic molecules like starch, cellulose and protein into simpler substances. The addition of enzymes in feed can improve nutrient utilization reducing feed cost and the excretion of nutrients into the environment.

Phytic acid is one of the most powerful anti-nutritional factors in plant ingredients. The anti-nutritional activity of phytic acid can be eliminated by the addition of relevant enzymes, for example phytase. The phytic acid or phytate found in cereals, legume grains and oil seeds is bound with phosphorus and also with calcium and magnesium, trace elements like iron and zinc, protein and amino acids. Most fishes do not possess their own enzymes to break down the phytate and release the nutrients so they pass through the fish undigested. This is why higher proportions of valuable nutrients from vegetable sources are not utilized by the animals and are wasted as excreta. The feed enzyme phytase not only releases phosphorus from the phytate but also releases minerals and amino acids that are also bound, paving the way for maximum utilization of nutrients.

Advantages of phytase

1. Since the phosphorus bound in phytate becomes available as nutrient due to the addition of phytase, the inclusion of inorganic phosphorus such as fishmeal can be drastically reduced.

2. The environmental performance of aquaculture operations is under scrutiny due to the discharge of nutrients into the surrounding ecosystems. Excessive phosphorus in particular is an important factor in the eutrophication of waterways. Phosporus bound in phytate may be unavailable to the fish but it will still ultimately be released into the environment as microbial action breaks down the fishes waste. The addition of phytase reduces the release of nutrients into the environment by making the bound phosphorus available to the fish for growth – so it is incorporated into the fishes body instead.

3. Phytase added to the diets improves protein and amino acid digestion in fishes.

4. Phytase can improve the metabolisable energy of feeds by breaking down the phytate-lipid complex.

5. Cheaper plant based protein sources can be substituted for fishmeal lowering feed costs.

Non – starch polysaccharides (NSP

Another important anti-nutritional factor that can be addressed with feed enzymes is non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), present in the plant materials and found to reduce the performance of animals. Their anti-nutritive effects are mainly due to the increased viscosity of the digest in the intestine and the enclosure of nutrients making them unavailable to digestion. Since the animals lack the intestinal enzymes for the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides, the supplementation of degrading enzymes in the diet will break down these anti-nutritive factors and result in better feed utilization. Such an approach has been successfully used in poultry diets.

Experimental results using feed enzymes

A number of studies have reported successful use of enzymes to combat anti-nutritional factors in plant proteins for fish feeds. Phytase added diets have been shown to have a higher feed intake, growth and better food conversion efficiency than control diets in Channel catfish, as well as reduced phosphorus load in their faecal matter1. Trout fed with phytase-incorporated soybean based diets have been reported to show a 22% improvement over control fish as phosphorus availability increased from 46% to over 70%2. Microbial phytase added diets containing a higher proportion of plant protein have been shown to improve phosphorus and protein digestibility in Atlantic salmon3.

A feeding trial conducted with tilapia Oreochromisniloticus fingerlings in Brazil showed the significance of phytase in plant protein based diets. The feed was supplemented with commercial phytase enzyme “Natuphas??? at 0, 500, 1500 and 3000 units per kilogram of feed. Fishes fed with 500 units of Natuphas showed higher weight gain and a better food conversion ratio of 1.80. Supplementation of protease-based additive equaled the performance of low protein milk fish diet (24% protein) up to the level of higher protein diets (28% protein)5.

The addition of commercial enzyme
Phytasein soybean based diets free of fish meal showed equal performance of diets containing 10 or 12% fish meal in carp and tilapia4,5,6.

The future

Aquaculture is fast growing Industry. Successful and sustainable aquaculture depends on economically viable and environmental friendly feeds. Feed is the major operational cost involving 50 to 60% of the total cost in intensive farming. The major feed ingredient, fishmeal, is expensive and there is increasing competition with other livestock industries for the available supply. Hence, research work has been focussed to find alternatives to fishmeal. One alternative is to substitute fishmeal with plant proteins supplemented with feed enzymes. Phytase enzyme is able to release the phosphorus bound in phytate and this permits feed manufacturers to reduce the fishmeal and lower the cost of feed production. Improved phosphorus utilization can also help reduce the discharge of nutrients into the environment. Enzymes can therefore play an important role in formulating eco-friendly aquafeeds. Currently, the use of enzymes is able to reduce fishmeal inclusion by around 5% in most aquafeeds with potential for more as techniques are refined. This may help to reduce the demand for fishmeal from the aquaculture sector in coming years.

Proteases
Incorporating Proteases in diets helps reduce feed costs without compromising performance.
Protein is one of the most expensive components of any livestock diet, but is essential for growth. The challenge, therefore, is to use protein as efficiently as possible so as to reduce feed costs without compromising animal health.
Proteases are enzymes that break down protein molecules into the amino acids and peptides needed by animals.
Your benefits
Adding Proteases can:
  • Increase protein digestibility
  • Improve protein utilization by the animal
  • Allow lower quality protein sources to be included in diets
  • Protect the environment by reducing the nitrogen excretion from animal husbandry
Specifically developed for inclusion in animal diets, Proteases significantly increases the digestibility of protein.
It complements naturally occurring proteases in feed, and considerably increases amino acid and peptide supply so as to enhance animal performance. It improves the digestibility of a wide range of protein sources and cereals, allowing savings in diet costs.  


Chris Farm Nigeria develops well self-explanatory, irresistible feasibility studies or business plan for your Business start ups, Business Growth or Expansions through either personal funds, Grants, or loans, which could be new or existing ones. We delight in writing for people under Academic sectors, production sectors, manufacturing sectors, processing or packing sectors, advertising sectors, marketing sectors and other related sectors on mini, middle and large scale businesses.
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Generally, our feasibility study and business plans are developed so well that it becomes irresistible when you show them to your investors or sponsors. It gives you a clear picture of what you are expected to see when you put the feasibility study or business plans into use. It also shows how much it will cost you to own your desired business, what your money can afford. The kinds of product you will need to minimize input in other to maximize output, and how much returns you will get at the end of each accounting year until your business break-even on its initial investment capital. This will give the intending business person or investor or farmer, a vivid idea on the possible benefit he or she stands to gain, when he or she starts doing the business. With that, the intending business person or investor or farmer will not need a soothsayer to make decision for him or her.

OUR TABLE OF CONTENT INCLUDE;

SECTION 1(Business plan section)
  • SECTION I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
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  • MOTIVATION
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  • SOCIAL/ECONOMIC VALUE
  • PROJECT STATUS & START UP
  • WHY PREPARE THIS BUSINESS PLAN?
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  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
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  • FINISHED PRODUCTS
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  • PRODUCTION CAPACITY
  • PRICING
  • PROMOTIONS PLAN
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  • SECTION VII – OPERATIONS PLAN
  • GENERAL APPROACH TO PRODUCTION
  • TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
  • EQUIPMENT
  • PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
  • SECTION VIII – FINANCIAL PLAN
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  • FINANCE CHARGES
  • FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
  • FUNDING REQUIREMENTS/USE OF FUNDS
  • CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS


SECTION 2(Feasibility study section)

  • FINANCIAL MODELS
  • SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
  • BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
  • DEPRECIATION
  • UTILITIES
  • OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
  • TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
  • FINANCING PLAN
  • INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
  • BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
  • LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
  • FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
  • CASH FLOW
  • BALANCE SHEET
  • GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
  • BUSINESS RATIOS - PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
  • CONCLUSION
  • SECTION 3 – APPENDIX

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·         NOTE; According to our policy, we are not “allowed / permitted” to disclose peoples business or written feasibility study, “to anyone”, irrespective of their personality.

·        BUT, WE are permitted to display only executive summary.
·         This is just a sample of our executive summary on poultry feasibility study and business plan, carried out in Rivers State. 

·         1st sample;

These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study. 

Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi. 

Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration. 

After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.

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