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GRASS CUTTER / CANE RAT PRODUCTION (IRRESISTIBLE PROFITING BUSINESS)

GRASS CUTTER / CANE RAT PRODUCTION (IRRESISTIBLE PROFITING BUSINESS)
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 INTRODUCTION
Grass-cutter belong to the family of rodent. It is also known as cane rat or cutting grass. Grass cutter farming is a relatively new venture in animal husbandry in Nigeria but has since been practiced in many west African countries such as Ghana, republic of Benin, Togo, cote D’vore and many other countries in central Africa. 
            There are different spices of grass-cutters, but the popular ones are the thryonomis agregorianus (brown race) and the thryonomis swinderianus (black race)


ECONOMIC IMPORTANT OF GRASS-CUTTER 
  1. It service as protein to man  
  2. It services as source of income to man
  3.  The furs/skin of the grass-cutter is a ready raw material for making various kinds of hard brushes and foot mats.
  4.  Its waste product serves as a good source of organic manures.


There are two main management systems, and these are the extensive system and the intensive system. 

EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
  
This system is the wide range system. Grass-cutter are usually found in the bushes or in the forest. Harvesting is hunting in the wide life. 

ADVANTAGES 
  •  It provides game for man during hunting festivals 
  • A source of meat to man 
  • A source of  raw materials to industries
   DISADVANTAGES
  • It destroys our natural habitat  
  • It is very difficult to harvest
SEMI INTENSIVE SYSTEM
Under this system, a large acres of land is fenced and the grass-cutter are then released into the large acres of land with a lot of natural basal feed (natural grasses) to feed on. Harvesting is usually done by setting traps. 
ADVANTAGES  
  • It is very cheap to manage   
  • It provides meat to man      
           DISADVANTAGES
  • Taking total numbers of stock is impossible
  •  Open to external predators
  •  This system is not usually the best because in-matured ones may be caught or injured during the harvesting period.  
  • If not handle with care, it can be very dangerous   

INTENSIVE SYSTEM 

            Grass-cutters under this system are usually kept inside a confined environment where housing, feeding and treatment are given to them for optimal health and development. The house build for them is called a ‘den’.   
 

DEN OF A GRASS-CUTTER

ADVANTAGES  
  • Grass-cutter is a source of income to the farmer 
  •  It provide food for man 
  • Is serve as source of raw materials for industries and research
DISADVANTAGE
  • It is costly to maintain 
  •  If not handle with care, it can be very dangerous

IDENTIFICATION OF SEX IN GRASS-CUTTERS

There are three criteria in identifying sex in grass-cutters, these are;  
  • Shape of the head 
  • Body size 
  •  Ana-genital distance (Ana-genital distance that exist between the reproductive organ and anus)   


MALE
FEMALE
The males head is usually big and round,
The female’s head is usually smallish and narrow
Their bodies is usually bigger than that of the female
Their body size is smaller than that of the male
There  is golf distance between the anus and the pennies
The anus and the clitoris are clamped together, hence there is no dist

HANDLING OF GRASS-CUTTERS/ CANE RAT
As a result of the hostile nature of grass-cutter, one needs to be very careful when handling any one of them. Always use a clip to select any desired specie you want to examine. But in the absent of clip, hold the grass-cutter on the center of the tail, or on the fore-legs or on the hind leg, use any one possible.

FEEDING IN GRASS-CUTTER

Feeding in grass-cutter can take the form of basal feeding or artificial feeding

EXAMPLES BASAL FEEDING 

Basal feeds are those naturally feed use in feeding animals. Examples of basal feed for grass-cutters are; elephant grass, guinea grass, paspalon, fresh maize stalk and cobs, sugar cane, pineapple leaves and crown, nervure of palm trees and coconut trees, cassava stem and tubers, pawpaw fruit, unripe tomatoes, cucumber, and so on. 

THE NEED FOR ARTIFICIAL FEED
            There is need to use artificial feeding as supplement when rearing your grass-cutter in order to the grass-cutter the require nutrition value.  A good formulated feed for grass-cutter is written below;

Crude protein………………………………………………..   12.14
Digestible energy……………………………………………. 2300-2500kcal 
Crude cellulose ……………………………………………… 8-10
Calcium ………………………………………………………….0.5-1%
Phosphorus …………………………………………………….0.3-0.5% 
The recommended feed ratio is 50-60g/day per animal and the average daily weight grained (ADWG) IS BETWEEN 9-10g

REPRODUCTION

The reproductive age of grass-cutter is 7-8 months for both sexes.

 REPRODUCTION SELECTION IN MALE    
  • The male must be docile  
  • Must have normal growth rate or should have been at least 2.5kg at 8 months  
  • Must have equal size of testicle

REPRODUCTION SELECTION IN FEMALE 
  • The female must have at least two pairs of teat 
  • Must have normal growth rate or attain at least 2kg
PREPARING THE MALE FOR COPULATION

STIMULATING    

This exercise is carried out on the third month of the birth of the grass-cutter. It involves the massaging of the genital organ, especially at the neck region with a view to arouse its sexual consciousness. This exercise continued until the male grass-cutter attained full reproductive stage at eight months.

COPULATION  

This is usually done when the female is on heat, (especially in the intensive system). On the natural bases, the male will mount one the female before it ejaculate internal and fertilize the ovary of the female. The same principle is what takes place even in the intensive system. The only thing is that special attention is given to them. One male can be use for four female. 

Note; always allow the female to stay with the male in the same den for about one to two months to ensure fertilization.   

GESTATION TEST

Gestation test is done using cotton bud. Insert the cotton bud inside the clitoris of the female with a gentle twist.    

RESULT

Those ones with blood stain or brownish colour in the cotton bud indicate that they are pregnant, while those ones that are grayish-white are not pregnant. The non-pregnant ones are re-introducing into the den. 

Note; male are called buck while female are called doe.

GESTATION PERIOD
 The pregnant doe gestate for a period of 5 months hence 152 days

LITTER SIZE
 The litter sizes 4-11 kids per doe

LACTATION PERIOD
They lactate for 45days 

WEANING
Weaning is done immediately after lactation

COLONY
Four female grass-cutter to one male grass-cutter 


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Chris Farm Nigeria develops well self-explanatory, irresistible feasibility studies or business plan for your Business start ups, Business Growth or Expansions through either personal funds, Grants, or loans, which could be new or existing ones. We delight in writing for people under Academic sectors, production sectors, manufacturing sectors, processing or packing sectors, advertising sectors, marketing sectors and other related sectors on mini, middle and large scale businesses.
For your Agribusiness, either production, processing, marketing of any Agro-industry, our feasibility studies or business plan are explicit.
Generally, our feasibility study and business plans are developed so well that it becomes irresistible when you show them to your investors or sponsors. It gives you a clear picture of what you are expected to see when you put the feasibility study or business plans into use. It also shows how much it will cost you to own your desired business, what your money can afford. The kinds of product you will need to minimize input in other to maximize output, and how much returns you will get at the end of each accounting year until your business break-even on its initial investment capital. This will give the intending business person or investor or farmer, a vivid idea on the possible benefit he or she stands to gain, when he or she starts doing the business. With that, the intending business person or investor or farmer will not need a soothsayer to make decision for him or her.
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OUR TABLE OF CONTENT INCLUDE;

SECTION 1(Business plan section)
  • SECTION I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • NAME OF BUSINESS / COMPANY
  • OFFICE & SITE LOCATION
  • MOTIVATION
  • MISSION STATEMENT
  • SOCIAL/ECONOMIC VALUE
  • PROJECT STATUS & START UP
  • WHY PREPARE THIS BUSINESS PLAN?
  • SECURITIES FOR THE PROPOSED LOAN
  • REPAYMENT
  • SECTION II – STUDY AREA
  • STUDY AREA
  • COMPANY OVERVIEW
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM
  • DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY
  • EXPERIENCE
  • MANAGEMENT TEAM GAPS
  • SECTION III – INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
  • DEFINING YOUR INDUSTRY
  • YOUR INDUSTRY SIZE GROWTH RATE AND SALES PROJECTIONS
  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
  • MARKET OVERVIEW
  • MARKET SEGMENTATION
  • RELEVANT MARKET SIZE
  • KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
  • LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE
  • MARKET CHARACTERISTICS
  • SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
  • SECTION IV – CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
  • TARGET CUSTOMERS
  • CUSTOMER NEEDS
  • MARKET NEEDS / SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
  • BUYERS BEHAVIOUR
  • MARKET SHARE
  • SALES FORECASTING
  • SECTION V – COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
  • DIRECT COMPETITORS
  • COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
  • SECTION VI – MARKETING PLAN
  • PRODUCTS & SERVICES
  • FINISHED PRODUCTS
  • PRODUCT QUALITY AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY
  • PRODUCTION CAPACITY
  • PRICING
  • PROMOTIONS PLAN
  • DISTRIBUTION PLAN
  • SECTION VII – OPERATIONS PLAN
  • GENERAL APPROACH TO PRODUCTION
  • TECHNICAL ANALYSIS / PRODUCTION PROCESS
  • EQUIPMENT
  • PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
  • SECTION VIII – FINANCIAL PLAN
  • REVENUE MODEL
  • FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
  • FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS
  • FINANCE CHARGES
  • FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
  • FUNDING REQUIREMENTS/USE OF FUNDS
  • CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS


SECTION 2(Feasibility study section)

  • FINANCIAL MODELS
  • SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
  • BUDGET OF FIXED ASSETS / CAPITAL EXPENSES / INVESTMENTS
  • DEPRECIATION
  • UTILITIES
  • OPERATING EXPENSES (OPEX)
  • TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
  • FINANCING PLAN
  • INSTALLED / AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
  • BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
  • LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
  • FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
  • CASH FLOW
  • BALANCE SHEET
  • GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS (BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS)
  • BUSINESS RATIOS - PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
  • CONCLUSION
  • SECTION 3 – APPENDIX

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·         NOTE; According to our policy, we are not “allowed / permitted” to disclose peoples business or written feasibility study, “to anyone”, irrespective of their personality.

·        BUT, WE are permitted to display only executive summary.
·         This is just a sample of our executive summary on poultry feasibility study and business plan, carried out in Rivers State. 

·         1st sample;

These Feasibility study on poultry farming business (specializing on layers and boilers production), was conducted using projections, impressive publications, compounding interest/values, tables, graph, bar chart, pie chart, profits analysis and cash flow positions in other to give a clear picture of what is obtainable in that location, using eight plots of land, at Esemdiary village, Off Effurun Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria as a case study. 

Esemdiary village is a community in Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State with coordinates 05°26’N 5°57’E, which also plays the host community to the Warri Airport, which is actually located at Osubi. 

Okpe Local Government is a territory that used to be part of the original Okpe Kingdom, its headquarters is at Orerokpe, with a population of 128,398 people whose primary occupations include commercial farming, fishing, hunting, trading and gas exploration. 

After carrying out the feasibility study on Esemdiary village, Off Effurun-Sapele Road, Okpe LGA of Delta state, Nigeria, it was discovered that, farming generally will do well both on crop and animal production.

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